Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 121, Issue 1, pp 69–71 | Cite as

Airborne sperm of Conocephalum conicum (Conocephalaceae)

  • Masaki ShimamuraEmail author
  • Tomio Yamaguchi
  • Hironori Deguchi
Short Communication


We have obtained the first momentary photographs of sperms just as they are discharged from the antheridium of a liverwort, Conocephalum conicum, and have succeeded in monitoring the airborne sperms of bryophytes under field conditions. Airborne sperm of liverworts seems to be an effective strategy for raising the efficiency of fertilization between male and female plants separated in a drought environment.


Sperm Fertilization Conocephalum conicum 



We thank S. Takeshita and T. Maehara for technical advice on use of the digital video camera and also thank H. Fujita for helpful comments on the manuscript.

Supplementary material

Movie S1 (MOV 867 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaki Shimamura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tomio Yamaguchi
    • 1
  • Hironori Deguchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of ScienceHiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan

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