Advertisement

Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 120, Issue 6, pp 707–712 | Cite as

First report of chromosome numbers of the Carlemanniaceae (Lamiales)

  • Xue Yang
  • Shu-Gang Lu
  • Hua Peng
Regular Paper

Abstract

The Carlemanniaceae comprises two small genera that are restricted to East Asia: the Carlemannia and Silvianthus. These genera were previously placed in the Rubiaceae or Caprifoliaceae, but are now considered a distinct family that is probably related to the Oleaceae in the Lamiales. The family is still poorly understood with respect to its morphological characteristics. Here, we present the first report of the chromosome numbers of the family using species from both genera, i.e., Carlemannia tetragona, Silvianthus bracteatus ssp. bracteatus, and S. bracteatus ssp. clerodendroides. The species were compared with the chromosome numbers of Oleaceae and associated families using a Bayesian tree that was generated from rbcL and ndhF sequence data from Genbank. C. tetragona had 2n = 30 (x = 15), whereas the two subspecies of Silvianthus had 2n = 38 (x = 19). Comparisons of chromosome numbers support the distinctness of the Carlemanniaceae, not only from the Oleaceae (x = 11, 13, 23), but also from the Tetrachondraceae (x = 10, 11), a family that is possibly related to the Carlemanniaceae and/or Oleaceae in the Lamiales. The notable difference in chromosome number between Carlemannia and Silvianthus, as well as the differences in other characteristics (pollen, seed, and fruit morphology), suggests that the family split early in its evolution.

Keywords

Carlemannia Carlemanniaceae Chromosome number Oleaceae Silvianthus 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the National 973 Project (2003CB415103). We sincerely thank Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Tobe for his careful and patient help, and the two anonymous reviewers and the editor Dr. Motomi Ito for their valuable comments on the manuscript. We thank Profs. Jin Chen (Xinshuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, CAS), Magnus Lindén (Uppsala University), and Zhengjun Zhang (University of Wisconsin) for their assistance in completing this study. The English in this document has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English. For a certificate, see: http://www.textcheck.com/cgi-bin/certificate.cgi?id=L2TgWv

References

  1. Airy Shaw HK (1965) On a new species of the genus Silvianthus Hook.f., and on the family Carlemanniaceae. Kew Bull 19:507–512Google Scholar
  2. APG II (2003) An update of the angiosperm phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Bot J Linn Soc 141:399–436Google Scholar
  3. Bentham G (1853) On three new genera connected with the India Flora. Hooker’s J Bot Kew Gard Misc 5:308Google Scholar
  4. Bremer K, Backlund A, Sennblad B, Swenson U, Andreasen K, Hjertson M, Lundberg J, Backlund M, Bremer B (2001) A phylogenetic analysis of 100+ genera and 50+ families of euasterids based on morphological and molecular data with notes on possible higher level morphological synapomorphies. Plant Syst Evol 229:137–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cronquist A (1981) Library of Congress cataloging in publication data—An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Fedotova TA (1996) Morphology of the fruit and seed of Carlemannia species (Carlemanniaceae) (In Russian with English summary). Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Moscow) 81:24–34 Google Scholar
  7. Green PS (2004) Oleaceae. In: Kubizki K (ed) The families and genera of vascular plants, vol 7. Springer, Berlin, pp 296–306Google Scholar
  8. Hooker JD (1868) Icones Plantarum t. 1048. The Ballantyne Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Hutchinson J (1926) The families of flowering plants. Dicotyledons. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Hutchinson J (1967) The genera of flowering plants, vol 2. Clarendon, Oxford, 86 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. IPCN (Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers) (2007). http://www.mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/ipcn.html
  12. Judd WS, Olmstead RG (2004) A survey of tricolpate (eudicot) phylogenetic relationships. Am J Bot 91:1627–1644Google Scholar
  13. Li MX, Zhang XF (1991) Technology for preparing slides of plant chromosomes. Northeastern Forest University Press, Ha’erbin City (China)Google Scholar
  14. Majumdar S, Chanda S (1978) Pollen morphology and taxonomy of Carlemannia and Silvianthus of the family Rubiaceae sensu lato. Tran Bose Res Inst Calcutta 41:99–105Google Scholar
  15. Oginuma K, Tobe H (2006) Chromosome evolution in the Laurales based on analyses of original and published data. J Plant Res 119:309–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Oginuma K, Munzinger J, Tobe H (2006) Exceedingly high chromosome number in Strasburgeriaceae, a monotypic family endemic to New Caledonia. Plant Syst Evol 260:97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) MRBAYES 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Savolainen V, Fay MF, Albach DC, Backlund A, van der Bank M, Cameron KM, Johnson SA, Lledó MD, Pintaud JC, Powell M, Sheahan MC, Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Weston P, Whitten WM, Wurdack KJ, Chase MW (2000) Phylogeny of the eudicots: a nearly complete familial analysis based on rbcL gene sequences. Kew Bull 55:257–309Google Scholar
  19. Schumann K (1891) Rubiaceae. In: Engler A (ed) Engler-Prantl Natürliche Pflanzen Familien, vol. 4. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, pp 1–156Google Scholar
  20. Solereder H (1893) Ein Beitrag zur anatomischen charakteristik und zur systematic der Rubiaceen. Bull Herb Boiss 1:167–183Google Scholar
  21. Stevens PF (2007) Angiosperm phylogeny website, version 7. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/. Accessed 14 June 2007
  22. Takhtajan AI (1997) Diversity and classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Tange C (1998) Silvianthus (Carlemanniaceae) a genus and family new to Thailand. Thai Forest Bull (Bot) 26:59–65Google Scholar
  24. Taylor H (1945) Cyto-taxonomy and phylogeny of the Oleaceae. Brittonia 5:337–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thiv M (2004) Carlemanniaceae. In: Kubizki K (ed) The families and genera of vascular plants, vol 7. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 57–59Google Scholar
  26. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The ClustalX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 24:4876–4882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wagenitz G (1964) Dipsacales. In: Melchior H (ed) A Engler’s Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien II. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, pp 472–478Google Scholar
  28. Yang X, Peng H, Lu SG (2006) A review of phylogeny of Carlemanniaceae. Bull Bot Res 26:397–401Google Scholar
  29. Yi T, Lowry PP II, Plunket GM, Wen J (2004) Chromosomal evolution in Araliaceae and close relatives. Taxon 53:987–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Ecology and GeobotanyYunnan UniversityKunmingChina
  2. 2.Laboratory of Plant Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations