Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 120, Issue 3, pp 385–397 | Cite as

Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Petunia (Solanaceae) based on the sequence of the Hf1 gene

  • Sumei Chen
  • Kiyoshi Matsubara
  • Takahiro Omori
  • Hisashi Kokubun
  • Hiroaki Kodama
  • Hitoshi Watanabe
  • Goro Hashimoto
  • Eduardo Marchesi
  • Laura Bullrich
  • Toshio AndoEmail author
Regular Paper


Polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphisms and nucleotide sequences for a cytochrome P450 gene encoding flavonoid-3′,5′-hydroxylase, Hf1, were studied in 19 natural taxa of Petunia. Natural Petunia taxa were classified into six groups based on major insertion or deletion events that occurred only in intron II of the locus. The maximum parsimony method was used to calculate strict consensus trees based on nucleotide sequences in selected regions of the Hf1 locus. Petunia taxa were divided into two major clades in the phylogenetic trees. Petunia axillaris (including three subspecies), P. exserta, and P. occidentalis formed a clade with 100% bootstrap support. This clade is associated with a consistently inflexed pedicel, self-compatibility in most taxa, and geographical distribution in southern and western portions of the genus range. The other clade, which comprised the remainder of the genus is, however, less supported (up to 71% bootstrap); it is characterized by a deflexed pedicel in the fruiting state (except P. inflata), self-incompatibility, and a northeastern distribution. A nuclear gene, Hf1, seems to be a useful molecular marker for elucidating the phylogeny of the genus Petunia when compared with the nucleotide sequence of trnK intron of chloroplast DNA.


Flavonoid-3′,5′-hydroxylase Hf1 trnK Phylogeny Petunia Solanaceae 



We thank Mr Tsuguyoshi Aoki of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Mr Sebastião T. Nagase, Mr Nobuyuki Hiranaka, Mr Tomio Koshizawa, Mr Hideo Ohkubo, and Mr Roberto H. Ohkubo of São Paulo, Brazil, and Mr Masao Udagawa of Montevideo, Uruguay, for help in surveying the natural habitat.

Supplementary material

10265_2006_70_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (54 kb)
Supplement Fig. 1. Strict consensus tree of the 321 most parsimonious trees calculated from combined data of Hf1 exon and trnK intron sequences. Numbers below branches are bootstrap support values (1000 replicates). (PDF kb)


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Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sumei Chen
    • 1
  • Kiyoshi Matsubara
    • 1
  • Takahiro Omori
    • 1
  • Hisashi Kokubun
    • 2
  • Hiroaki Kodama
    • 3
  • Hitoshi Watanabe
    • 2
  • Goro Hashimoto
    • 4
  • Eduardo Marchesi
    • 5
  • Laura Bullrich
    • 6
  • Toshio Ando
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  2. 2.Center for Environment, Health and Field SciencesChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of HorticultureChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  4. 4.Centro de Pesquisas de História NaturalSão PauloBrazil
  5. 5.Facutad de AgronomiaUniversidad de la RepúblicaMontevideoUruguay
  6. 6.Instituto de Floricultura, INTALas Cabañas y Los ReserosBuenos AiresArgentina

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