Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 120, Issue 1, pp 129–138 | Cite as

Independent origins of tetraploid cryptic species in the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides

  • Bayu AdjieEmail author
  • Shigeo Masuyama
  • Hiroshi Ishikawa
  • Yasuyuki Watano
Regular Paper


Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn is a tetraploid fern species that contains at least three cryptic species, the south, the north and the third type. In this study we combined data from both chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear DNA sequences of three diploid species and three cryptic species of C. thalictroides to unravel the origin of the cryptic species, particularly of the reticulate relationships among the diploid and tetraploid taxa in the genus Ceratopteris. Of the three diploid species examined, C. cornuta had cpDNA identical to that of the tetraploid third type plants, and this diploid species is a possible maternal ancestor of the tetraploid third type. Analysis of the homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY gene (CLFY1) identified ten alleles in the genus Ceratopteris, with six alleles found in C. thalictroides. The unrooted tree of the CLFY1 gene revealed four clusters. Each cryptic species showed fixed heterozygosity at the CLFY1 locus and had two alleles from different clusters of the CLFY1 tree. Consideration of the cpDNA sequences, CLFY1 genotypes of the cryptic species and CLFY1 gene tree in concert suggested that the cryptic species of C. thalictroides had originated through independent allopolyploidization events involving C. cornuta and two unknown hypothetical diploid species.


Ceratopteris cpDNA Cryptic species LEAFY homologue Speciation 



The authors thank the following persons who helped collect materials: Wenni S. Lestari, Pak Cecep, Pak Kiswoyo and Ms. Anti. The authors also thank Dr. Tim Utteridge (The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK) for checking and correcting the English manuscript. We also thank the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. This study was supported by a Monbukagakusho (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan: MEXT) scholarship to B. A., who is on the research staff of the Eka Karya Botanical Gardens, Bali, Indonesian Institute of Sciences.


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Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bayu Adjie
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shigeo Masuyama
    • 2
  • Hiroshi Ishikawa
    • 3
  • Yasuyuki Watano
    • 4
  1. 1.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Arts and SciencesTokyo Woman’s Christian UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of General System Studies, Graduate School of Arts and SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceChiba UniversityChibaJapan

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