Advertisement

Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 118, Issue 2, pp 147–153 | Cite as

Genetic analysis and conservation of the endangered Canary Island woody sow-thistle, Sonchus gandogeri (Asteraceae)

  • S. -C. KimEmail author
  • C. Lee
  • A. Santos-Guerra
Original Article

Abstract

Sonchus gandogeri, a woody sow-thistle, is an endangered Canary Island endemic with only two known populations, one in the El Golfo and another in the Las Esperillas of El Hierro. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to assess the genetic variation within and among populations. The mean genetic diversity of two populations was estimated to be 0.380, and the El Golfo population (0.380) had higher genetic diversity than the southeastern one (0.268). The unbiased Nei’s genetic identity between the two populations was 0.846. The mean genetic diversity of S. gandogeri was much higher than that of the other endangered plant species. This is perhaps due to breeding system, life form, extinction, and/or introgressive hybridization and hybrid origin of the taxon. This study also indicates that the two populations are not strongly differentiated (GST=0.149). This study suggests that S. gandogeri is more likely to become extinct due to environmental or demographic forces than genetic factors, such as inbreeding depression. More strict control of introduced herbivores is necessary to protect these populations, and germplasm collection for ex situ conservation is needed.

Keywords

AFLP Canary archipelago Conservation genetics Endangered species Genetic variation Sonchus gandogeri 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Daniel Crawford, Javier Francisco-Ortega, and Norm Ellstrand for helpful comments on an early version of the manuscript. The manuscript was greatly improved by comments from two anonymous reviewers. This project is supported in part by an Academic Senate Grant, Regents’ Faculty Fellowship, and Agricultural Experiment Station funds from the University of California at Riverside to S.-C. Kim. We also thank Cabildo de El Hierro for issuing a permit to collect plants on El Hierro and the ICIA (Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias) for letting us use their facilities.

References

  1. Aldridge AE (1975) Taxonomic and anatomical studies in Sonchus L. subg. Dendrosonchus Webb ex Schultz Bip. and related genera. PhD Thesis, University of Reading, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldridge AE (1976) Macaronesian Sonchus subgenus Dendrosonchus s. l. (Compositae-Lactuceae), including a reappraisal of the species concept and new combinations. Bot Macaronesica 2:81–93Google Scholar
  3. Aldridge AE (1979) Evolution within a single genus: Sonchus in Macaronesia. In: Bramwell D (ed) Plants and island. Academic Press, London, pp 249–285Google Scholar
  4. Batista F, Bañares A, Caujapé-Castells J et al. (2001) Allozyme diversity in three endemic species of Cistus (Cistaceae) from the Canary Islands: intraspecific and interspecific comparisons and implications for genetic conservation. Am J Bot 88:1582–1592Google Scholar
  5. Beardmore JA (1983) Extinction, survival, and genetic variation. In: Schoenwald-Cox CM, Chambers SM, MacBryde B, Thomas L (eds) Genetics and conservation. Benjamin-Cummings, Menlo Park, CA, pp 125–151Google Scholar
  6. Boulos L (1974) Révision systematique du genre Sonchus L. s.l. V. Sous genre 2. Dendrosonchus. Botaniska Notiser 127:7–37Google Scholar
  7. Bouza N, Caujapé-Castells J, González-Pérez MA, Batista F, Sosa PA (2002) Population structure and genetic diversity of two endangered endemic species of the Canarian laurel forest: Dorycnium spectabile (Fabaceae) and Isoplexis chalcantha (Scorphulariacaeae). Int J Plant Sci 163:619–630Google Scholar
  8. Bramwell D (1976) The endemic flora of the Canary Islands: distrubution relationships and phytogeography. In: Kunkel G (ed) Biogeography and ecology in the Canary Islands, Monographiae Biologicae 30. Junk, The Hague, pp 207–240Google Scholar
  9. Bramwell D (1990) Conserving biodiversity in the Canary Islands. Ann MO Botanical Garden 77:28–37Google Scholar
  10. Bramwell D, Bramwell Z (2001) Wild flowers of the Canary Islands, 2nd edn. Editorial Rueda, MadridGoogle Scholar
  11. Bussel JD (1999) The distribution of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) diversity amongst populations of Isotoma petrea (Lobeliaceae). Mol Ecol 8:775–789Google Scholar
  12. Cardoso MA, Provan W, Powell J, Ferreras PCG, Oliveira DE (1998) High genetic differentiation among remnant populations of the endangered Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae). Mol Ecol 7:601–608Google Scholar
  13. Carracedo JC (1994) The Canary Islands: an example of structural control on the growth of large oceanic-island volcanoes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 60:225–241Google Scholar
  14. Chalmers KJ, Waugh R, Sprent JI, Simons AJ, Powell W (1992) Detection of genetic variation between and within populations of Gliricidia sepium and G. maculata using RAPD markers. Heredity 69:465–472Google Scholar
  15. Crawford DJ, Ruiz E, Stuessy TF et al. (2001) Allozyme diversity in endemic flowering plant species of the Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile: ecological and historical factors with implications for conservation. Am J Bot 88:2195–2203Google Scholar
  16. De Joode DE, Wendel J (1992) Genetic diversity and origin of the Hawaiian Islands cotton, Gossypium tomentosum. Am J Bot 79:1311–1319Google Scholar
  17. Drummond RSM, Keeling DJ, Richardson TE, Gardner RC, Wright SD (2000) Genetic analysis and conservation of 31 surviving individuals of a rare New Zealand tree, Metrosideros bartlettii (Myrtaceae). Mol Ecol 9:1149–1157Google Scholar
  18. Ellstrand NC, Elam DR (1993) Population genetic consequences of small population size: implications for plant conservation. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 24:217–242Google Scholar
  19. Engler A (1879) Versuch einer Entwicklungsgeschichte, insbesondere der Florengebiete seit der Tertiärperiode. I. Die extratropischen Gebiete der nördlichen Hemisphäre. Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  20. Francisco-Ortega A, Santos-Guerra A, Kim S-C, Crawford DJ (2000) Plant genetic diversity in the Canary Islands: a conservation perspective. Am J Bot 87:909–919Google Scholar
  21. Frankel OH (1983) The place of management in conservation. In: Schoenwald-Cox CM, Chambers SM, MacBryde B, Thomas L (eds) Genetics and conservation. Benjamin-Cummings, Menlo Park, CA, pp 125–151Google Scholar
  22. Frankham R (1997) Do island populations have less genetic variation than mainland populations? Heredity 78:311–327Google Scholar
  23. Frankham R (1998) Inbreeding and extinction: island populations. Conserv Biol 12:665–675Google Scholar
  24. Franklin ER (1980) Evolutionary change in small populations. In: Soulé ME, Wilcox BA (eds) Conservation biology: an evolutionary-ecological perspective. Sinauer, Sunderland, pp 135–150Google Scholar
  25. Gaudeul M, Taberlet P, Till-Bottraud (2000) Genetic diversity in an endangered plant, Eryngium alpinum L. (Apiaceae), inferred from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Mol Ecol 9:1625–1637Google Scholar
  26. Gemmill CE, Ranker TA, Ragone D, Perlman SP, Wood KR (1998) Conservation genetics of the endangered endemic Hawaiian genus Brighmania (Campanulaceae). Am J Bot 85:528–539Google Scholar
  27. Hamrick JL, Godt JW (1996) Conservation genetics of endemic plant species. In: Avise JC, Hamrick JL (eds) Conservation genetics: case studies from nature. Chapman & Hall, NY, pp 281–301Google Scholar
  28. Hamrick JL, Godt JW (1997) Effects of life history traits. In: Silvertown J, Franco M, Harper JL (eds) Plant life histories-ecology, phylogeny and evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 102–118Google Scholar
  29. Hamrick JL, Godt MJW, Murawski DA, Loveless MD (1991) Correlations between species traits and allozyme diversity: implications for conservation biology. In: Falk DA, Holsinger KE (eds) Genetics and conservation of rare plants. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 75–86Google Scholar
  30. Huenneke LF (1991) Ecological implications of genetic variation in plant populations. In: Falk DA, Holsinger KE (eds) Genetics and conservation of rare plants. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 31–44Google Scholar
  31. Kim S-C, Rieseberg LH (1999) Genetic architecture of species differences in annual sunflowers: implications for adaptive trait introgression. Genetics 153:965–977Google Scholar
  32. Kim S-C, Crawford DJ, Jansen RK (1996a) Phylogenetic relationships among the genera of the subtribe Sonchinae (Asteraceae): evidence from ITS sequences. Syst Bot 21:417–432Google Scholar
  33. Kim S-C, Crawford DJ, Francisco-Ortega J, Santos-Guerra A (1996b) A common origin for woody Sonchus and five related genera in the Macaronesian islands: molecular evidence for extensive radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:7743–7748Google Scholar
  34. Kim S-C, Crawford DJ, Francisco-Ortega A, Santos-Guerra A (1999) Adaptive radiation and genetic differentiation in the woody Sonchus aliance (Asteraceaae: Sonchinae) in the Canary Islands. Plant Syst Evol 215:101–118Google Scholar
  35. Manly BFJ (1985) The statistics of natural selection. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. Menges ES (1991) The application of minimum viable population theory to plants. In: Falk DA, Holsinger KE (eds) Genetics and conservation of rare plants. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 45–61Google Scholar
  37. Nei M (1973) Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:3321–3323Google Scholar
  38. Nei M (1978) Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89:583–590Google Scholar
  39. Nei M, Li WH (1979) Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5269–5273Google Scholar
  40. Nuez P, Prohens J, Blanca JM (2004) Relationships, origin, and diversity of Galápagos tomatoes: implications for the conservation of natural populations. Am J Bot 91:86–99Google Scholar
  41. Palacios C, González-Candelas F (1999) AFLP analysis of the critically endangered Limonium cavanillesii (Plumbaginaceae). J Hered 90:485–489Google Scholar
  42. Palacios C, Kresovich S, González-Candelas F (1999) A population genetic study of the endangered plant species Limonium dufourii (Plumbaginaceae) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Mol Ecol 8:645–657Google Scholar
  43. Rox J, Boulos L (1972) Révision systématique du genre Sonchus L. s. l. II. Étude caryologique. Botaniska Notiser 125:306–309Google Scholar
  44. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425Google Scholar
  45. Schaal BA, Leverich WJ, Rogstad SH (1991) A comparison of methods for assessing genetic variation in plant conservation biology. In: Falk DA, Holsinger KE (eds) Genetics and conservation of rare plants. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 123–134Google Scholar
  46. Schmidt K, Jenssen K (2000) Genetic structure and AFLP variation of remnant populations in the rare plant Pedicularis palustris (Scrophulariaceae) and its relation to population size and reproduction components. Am J Bot 87:678–689Google Scholar
  47. Stuessy TF, Crawford DJ, M Silva O (1998) Isolating mechanisms and modes of speciation in the vascular flora of the Juan Fernandez Islands. In: Stuessy TF, Ono M (eds) Evolution and speciation in island plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 79–86Google Scholar
  48. Swofford DL (2000) PAUP*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  49. Travis SE, Maschinski J, Keim P (1996) An analysis of genetic variation in Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax, a critically endangered plant, using AFLP markers. Mol Ecol 5:735–745Google Scholar
  50. Vos P, Hogers R, Bleeker M et al. (1995) AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res 23:4407–4414Google Scholar
  51. Weller SG, Sakai AK, Straub C (1996) Allozyme diversity and genetic identity in Schiedea and Alsinidendron (Caryophyllaceae: Alsinoideae) in the Hawaiian Islands. Evolution 50:23–34Google Scholar
  52. Yeh FC, Young RC, Timothy B et al. (1997) Popgene, the user-friendly shareware for population genetic analysis. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Center, University of Alberta, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  53. Zawko G, Krauss SL, Dixon KW, Sivasithamparam K (2001) Conservation genetics of the rare and endangered Leucopogon obtectus (Ericaceae). Mol Ecol 10:2389–2396Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Botany and Plant SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  2. 2.Jardín de Aclimatación de La OrotavaPuerto de La Cruz, TenerifeSpain

Personalised recommendations