Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 116, Issue 3, pp 183–188 | Cite as

Carbon autonomy of reproductive shoots of Siberian alder (Alnus hirsuta var. sibirica)

  • Shigeaki Hasegawa
  • Keisuke Koba
  • Ichiro Tayasu
  • Hiroshi Takeda
  • Hiroki Haga
Original Article

Abstract

Carbon autonomy of current-year shoots in flowering, and of current-year shoots plus 1-year-old shoots (1-year-old shoot system) in fruiting of Siberian alder (Alnus hirsuta var. sibirica) was investigated using a stable isotope of carbon, 13C. The current-year shoot and 1-year-old shoot systems were fed 13CO2 and the atom% excess of 13C in flowers and fruits was determined. The majority of photosynthate allocated to flower buds was originally assimilated in the leaves of the flowering current-year shoots. Of all the current-year shoots on fruiting 1-year-old shoots, only those nearest to the fruits allocated the assimilated photosynthate to fruit maturation. These results indicate that the current-year shoots and 1-year-old shoot systems are carbon-autonomous units for producing flowers and maturing fruits, respectively.

Keywords

Alnus hirsuta var. sibirica 13Current-year shoot population Tracer experiment Translocation of photosynthate 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank T. Ando, K. Kurumado, N. Miyamoto and all the staff of Takayama Research Station, Institute for Basin Ecosystem Studies, Gifu University for their support of field studies. We are grateful to Lake Biwa Museum, Shiga Prefecture for providing facilities for the stable isotope analysis. We are also grateful to H. Barclay and J. Henriksson for reading through the manuscript and giving us valuable suggestions, and to H. Nakajima, M. Hirobe, T. Shirota, M. Takagi, H. Kobayashi, Y. Miyazaki and the members of Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University for their advice.

References

  1. Ashman TL (1994) A dynamic perspective on the physiological cost of reproduction in plants. Am Nat 144:300–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bazzaz FA, Carlson RW, Harper JL (1979) Contribution to reproductive effort by photosynthesis of flowers and fruits. Nature 279:554–555Google Scholar
  3. Cliquet JB, Deléens E, Bousser A, Margin M, Lescure JC, Prioul JL, Mariotti A, Morot-Gaudry JF (1989) Estimation of carbon and nitrogen allocation during stalk elongation by 13C and 15N tracing in Zea mays L. Plant Physiol 92:79–87Google Scholar
  4. Cliquet JB, Deléens E, Mariotti A (1990) C and N mobilization from stalk and leaves during kernel filling by 13C and 15N tracing in Zea mays L. Plant Physiol 94:1547–1553Google Scholar
  5. Cooper SD, McGraw JB (1988) Constraints on reproductive potential at the level of the shoot module in three ericaceous shrubs. Funct Ecol 2:97–108Google Scholar
  6. Davis JT, Sparks D (1974) Assimilation and translocation patterns of carbon-14 in the shoot of fruiting pecan trees, Carya illinoensis Koch. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 99:468–480Google Scholar
  7. Deléens E, Cliquet JB, Prioul JL (1994) Use of 13C and 15N plant label near natural abundance for monitoring carbon and nitrogen partitioning. Aust J Plant Physiol 21:133–146Google Scholar
  8. Geiger DR, Swanson CA (1965) Evaluation of selected parameters in a sugar beet translocation system. Plant Physiol 40:942–947Google Scholar
  9. Hansen P (1967) 14C-Studies on apple trees. I. The effect of the fruit on the translocation and distribution of photosynthates. Physiol Plant 20:382–391Google Scholar
  10. Hansen P (1969) 14C-Studies on apple trees. IV. Photosynthate consumption in fruits in relation to the leaf-fruit ratio and to leaf-fruit position. Physiol Plant 22:186–198Google Scholar
  11. Hartt CE (1965) Light and translocation of C14 in detached blades of sugarcane. Plant Physiol 40:718–724Google Scholar
  12. Hartt CE, Kortschak HP, Forbes AJ, Burr GO (1963) Translocation of C14 in sugarcane. Plant Physiol 38:305–318Google Scholar
  13. Hasegawa S, Takeda H (1998) Maturation process of fruits of Japanese alder (Alnus hirsuta var. sibirica) at the level of current shoot (in Japanese with English summary). For Res 70:61–67Google Scholar
  14. Hasegawa S, Takeda H (2001) Functional specialization of current shoots as a reproductive strategy in Japanese alder (Alnus hirsuta var. sibirica). Can J Bot 79:38–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haukioja E, Neuvonen S (1985) Induced long-term resistance in birch foliage against defoliators: defensive or incidental? Ecology 66:1303–1308Google Scholar
  16. Haukioja E, Ruohomäki K, Senn J, Suomela J, Walls M (1990) Consequences of herbivory in the mountain birch (Betula pubesens ssp. tortuosa): importance of the functional organization of the tree. Oecologia 82:238–247Google Scholar
  17. Henriksson J (2001) Differential shading of branches or whole trees: survival, growth, and reproduction. Oecologia 126:482–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoffmann AJ, Alliende MC (1984) Interactions in the patterns of vegetative growth and reproduction in woody dioecious plants. Oecologia 61:109–114Google Scholar
  19. Honkanen T, Haukioja E (1994) Why does a branch suffer more after branch-wide than after tree-wide defoliation? OIKOS 71:441–450Google Scholar
  20. Karlsson PS, Olsson L, Hellström K (1996) Trade-offs among investments in different long-shoot functions—variation among mountain birch individuals. J Ecol 84:915–921Google Scholar
  21. Kikuzawa K (1978) Emergence, defoliation and longevity of alder (Alnus hirsuta TURCZ.) leaves in a deciduous hardwood forest stand. Jpn J Ecol 28:299–306Google Scholar
  22. Kozlowski TT (1971) Growth and development of trees. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Kozlowski TT, Clausen JJ (1966) Shoot growth characteristics of heterophyllous woody plants, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Can J Bot 44:827–843Google Scholar
  24. Lovett Doust J, Lovett Doust L (1988) Modules of production and reproduction in a dioecious clonal shrub, Rhus typhina. Ecology 69:741–750Google Scholar
  25. Mooney HA (1972) The carbon balance of plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 3:315–346Google Scholar
  26. Newell EA (1991) Direct and delayed costs of reproduction in Aesculus californica. J Ecol 79:365–378Google Scholar
  27. Obeso JR (1997) Costs of reproduction in Ilex aquifolium: effects at tree, branch and leaf levels. J Ecol 85:159–166Google Scholar
  28. Rabideau GS, Burr GO (1945) The use of the C13 isotope as a tracer for transport studies in plants. Am J Bot 32:349–356Google Scholar
  29. Reekie EG, Bazzaz FA (1987) Reproductive effort in plants. 1. Carbon allocation to reproduction. Am Nat 129:876–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ruohomäki K, Haukioja E, Repka S, Lehtilä K (1997) Leaf value: effects of damage to individual leaves on growth and reproduction of mountain birch shoots. Ecology 78:2105–2117Google Scholar
  31. Sprugel DG, Hinckley TM, Schaap W (1991) The theory and practice of branch autonomy. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 22:309–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Steer BT, Pearson CJ (1976) Photosynthate translocation in Capsicum annuum. Planta 138:155–162Google Scholar
  33. Stephenson A (1981) Flower and fruit abortion: proximate causes and ultimate functions. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 12:253–279Google Scholar
  34. Takeda F, Ryugo K, Crane JC (1980) Translocation and distribution of 14C-photosynthates in bearing and nonbearing pistachio branches. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 105:642–644Google Scholar
  35. Tuomi J, Niemelä P, Mannila R (1982) Resource allocation on dwarf shoots of birch (Betula pendula): reproduction and leaf growth. New Phytol 91:483–487Google Scholar
  36. Tuomi J, Vuorisalo T, Niemelä P, Haukioja E (1988a) Effects of localized defoliations on female inflorescences in mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa. Can J Bot 67:334–338Google Scholar
  37. Tuomi J, Vuorisalo T, Niemelä P, Nisula S, Jormalainen V (1988b) Localized effects of branch defoliations on weight gain of female inflorescences in Betula pubescens. OIKOS 51:327–330Google Scholar
  38. Tuomi J, Vuorisalo T, Niemelä P, Haukioja E (1989) Effects of localized defoliations on female inflorescences in mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa. Can J Bot 67:334–338Google Scholar
  39. Williams K, Koch GW, Mooney HA (1985) The carbon balance of flowers of Diplacus aurantiacus (Scrophulariaceae). Oecologia 66:530–535Google Scholar
  40. Willson MF (1983) Plant reproductive ecology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer-Verlag  2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shigeaki Hasegawa
    • 1
    • 4
  • Keisuke Koba
    • 2
  • Ichiro Tayasu
    • 1
    • 5
  • Hiroshi Takeda
    • 1
  • Hiroki Haga
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Division of Environmental Science and Technology, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyoto Japan
  2. 2.Division of Biosphere Informatics, Graduate School of InformaticsKyoto UniversityJapan
  3. 3.Lake Biwa MuseumKusatsuJapan
  4. 4.Laboratory of Regional Ecosystems, Graduate School of Environmental Earth ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporo 060-0810Japan
  5. 5.Research Institute for Humanity and NatureKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations