Data mining and analysis of part-time entrepreneurs from the perspective of entrepreneurial ability

  • Jun Sun
  • Yongchun HuangEmail author
  • Dejin Su
  • Chen Yang
Original Article


Part-time entrepreneurship—the process of starting a business while retaining a ‘day job’ in an existing organization—can be considered an entry strategy into full-time entrepreneurship rather than a form of entrepreneurship in itself. With the goal of examining how the entrepreneurial ability relates to the transition from part-time to full-time entrepreneur, we integrate insights from utility maximization theory with logic from the resource capability theory, then test hypotheses through simulation analysis of mathematical models and the empirical analysis of questionnaire data. The key findings of the study emphasize that part-time entrepreneurs with higher Resource allocation ability are more likely to turn into full-time entrepreneurs, and the opportunity-recognition ability is not verified by this assumption. Besides, Entrepreneurial resource positively regulates the relationship between two types of entrepreneurial ability and the transformation intention.


Part-time entrepreneurship Full-time entrepreneurship Transformation intention Resource allocation ability Opportunity-recognition ability Entrepreneurial resource 



  1. Al-Zubeidi M (2013) Higher education and entrepreneurship: the relation between college educational background and small business success in Texas. Pm R 5(9):302–303Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez SA, Busenitz LW (2001) The entrepreneurship of resource-based theory. J Manag 27(6):755–775Google Scholar
  3. Arthurs JD, Busenitz LW (2006) Dynamic capabilities and venture performance: the effects of venture capitalists. J Bus Ventur 21(2):195–215Google Scholar
  4. Baron RM, Kenny DA (1986) The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. J Pers Soc Psychol 51(6):1173–1182Google Scholar
  5. Baum JR, Locke EA (2004) The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to subsequent venture growth. J Appl Psychol 89(4):587Google Scholar
  6. Block JH, Landgraf A (2013) The intention of part-time entrepreneurs to become full-time entrepreneurs: the role of financial and non-financial motives. Soc Sci Electron Publ 10:1–23Google Scholar
  7. Block JH, Landgraf A (2014) Transition from part-time entrepreneurship to full-time entrepreneurship: the role of financial and non-financial motives. Int Entrep Manag J 12(1):1–24Google Scholar
  8. Bögenhold D, Klinglmair A (2016) Entrepreneurship and hybrid self-employment. Fac Manag Econ 18(3):127–140Google Scholar
  9. Brown S, Dietrich M, Ortiz-Nuñez A, Taylor K (2011) Self-employment and attitudes towards risk: timing and unobserved heterogeneity. J Econ Psychol 32(3):425–433Google Scholar
  10. Burke AE, FitzRoy FR, Nolan MA (2008) What makes a die-hard entrepreneur? Beyond The ‘employee or entrepreneur’ dichotomy. Small Bus Econ 31(2):93–115Google Scholar
  11. Cai L, Tang SQ, Ma YL, Gao X (2014) Research on the relationship between entrepreneurial learning, entrepreneurial ability and new enterprise performance. Sci Res 32(08):1189–1197Google Scholar
  12. Castells M (2000) The rise of the network society. Economy, society and culture. Blackwell, MaldenGoogle Scholar
  13. Chang CH, Ferris DL, Johnson RE, Rosen CC, Tan JA (2012) Core self-evaluations: a review and evaluation of the literature. J Manag 38:81–128Google Scholar
  14. Cramer JS, Hartog J, Jonker N et al (2002) Low-Risk aversion encourages the choice for entrepreneurship: an empirical test of a truism. J Econ Behav Organ 48(1):29–36Google Scholar
  15. Dahalan N, Jaafar M, Rosdi SAM (2013) Local community readiness in entrepreneurship: do gender differ in searching business opportunity. Proc Soc Behav Sci 91:403–410Google Scholar
  16. Dilli S, Westerhuis G (2018) How institutions and gender differences in education shape entrepreneurial activity: a cross-national perspective. Small Bus Econ 51:1–22Google Scholar
  17. Dixit AK, Pindyck RS (1994) Investment under uncertainty. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  18. Dong BB (2014) Is the risk need to be balanced? The intermediary role of risk-bearing and performance inverted U-type relationship and entrepreneurial ability of new enterprises. Manag World 01:120–131Google Scholar
  19. Douglas EJ, Shepherd DA (2000) Entrepreneurship as a utility maximizing response. J Bus Ventur 15(3):231–251Google Scholar
  20. Dyer JH, Gregersen HB, Christensen C (2010) Entrepreneur behaviors, opportunity recognition, and the origins of innovative ventures. Strateg Entrep J 2(4):317–338Google Scholar
  21. Folta TB (1998) Governance and uncertainty: the tradeoff between administrative control and commitment. Strateg Manag J 19:1007–1028Google Scholar
  22. Folta TB, Delmar F, Wennberg K (2010) Hybrid entrepreneurship. Manage Sci 56:253–269Google Scholar
  23. Grabowski U, Kittelwegner E (2017) Book review: a general theory of entrepreneurship: the individual-opportunity nexus. Int J Global Small Bus 1(1):319–322Google Scholar
  24. Huang YC, Huang XY (2018) The heterogeneous competency characteristics of entrepreneurs and the supply of entrepreneurship policies: based on competency theory. Sci Technol Progr Countermeas 35(11):117–123Google Scholar
  25. Huang YC, Lei YY (2017) Study on the composing system of entrepreneurial competence in emerging industries—exploratory analysis based on entrepreneurial opportunity theory. Nanjing Soc Sci 02:47–53Google Scholar
  26. Hugonnier JN, Morellec E (2007) Real options and risk aversion (Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series). Swiss Finance Institute, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  27. Judge TA, Erez A, Bono JE, Thoresen CJ (2003) The core self-evaluations scale: development of a measure. Pers Psychol 56:303–331Google Scholar
  28. Kaiser CP (1990) Entrepreneurship and resource allocation. East Econ J 16(1):9–20Google Scholar
  29. Kalleberg AL (2000) Nonstandard employment relations: part-time, temporary and contract work. Ann Rev Sociol 26(1):341–365Google Scholar
  30. Kauder E (1966) Metaphysicians of economics. Book reviews: a history of marginal utility theory. Science 151(3716):1377Google Scholar
  31. Krueger NF (2000) The cognitive infrastructure of opportunity emergence. Entrep Theory Pract 24:185–206Google Scholar
  32. Luc S, Chirita GM, Delvaux E, Kepnou AK (2018) Hybrid entrepreneurship: employees climbing the entrepreneurial ladder. Acad Manag Ann Meet Proc 04:142–153Google Scholar
  33. Ma YF (2017) The influence of part-time entrepreneurial motivation on leaving entrepreneurial behavior. Anhui University of Finance and Economics, BengbuGoogle Scholar
  34. Ma HJ, Dong BB, Ge BS (2014) Research on the relationship between entrepreneurial competence, dynamic capabilities and competitive advantage of enterprises. Sci Sci 32(03):431–440Google Scholar
  35. Mcgee JE, Peterson M, Mueller SL et al (2010) Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: refining the measure. Entrep Theory Pract 33(4):965–988Google Scholar
  36. Mcgrath RG (2009) Entrepreneurship, small firms and wealth creation: a framework using real options reasoning. Social Science Electronic Publishing, RochesterGoogle Scholar
  37. Modigliani F, Miller MH (1959) The cost of capital, corporation finance, and the theory of investment: reply. Am Econ Rev 49(4):655–669Google Scholar
  38. Moren L, Minniti M (2006) The Effect of aging on entrepreneurial behavior. J Bus Ventur 21(2):177–194Google Scholar
  39. Moren L, Shepherd DA, Douglas EJ (2002) Employment or self-employment: a dynamic utility-maximizing model. J Bus Ventur 17(3):189–210Google Scholar
  40. Petrova K (2005) Part-time entrepreneurship and wealth effects: new evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics. In: 50th ICSB conference, Washington, no. 7, pp 15–18Google Scholar
  41. Petrova K (2010) Part-time entrepreneurship: theory and evidence. Atl Econ J 38(4):463–464Google Scholar
  42. Petrova K (2011) Part-time entrepreneurship, learning and ability. J Manag Policy Pract 12(1):64–75Google Scholar
  43. Petrova K (2012) Part-time entrepreneurship and financial constraints: evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics. Small Bus Econ 39(2):473–493Google Scholar
  44. Raffiee J, Feng J (2014) Should I quit my day job? A hybrid path to entrepreneurship. Acad Manag J 57(4):936–964Google Scholar
  45. Roberts K, Weitzman ML (1981) Funding criteria for research, development, and exploration projects. Econometrica 49:1261–1288Google Scholar
  46. Sardeshmukh SR, Smithnelson RM (2011) Educating for an entrepreneurial career: developing opportunity-recognition ability. Aust J Career Dev 20(3):47–55Google Scholar
  47. Tang J, Jiang YF (2008) The theoretical construction and empirical test of the concept of entrepreneurial ability. Sci Sci Technol Manag 08:52–57Google Scholar
  48. Thorgren S, Wincent J (2016) Hybrid entrepreneurs’ second-step choice. J Bus Ventur Insights 5:14–18Google Scholar
  49. Thorgren S, Nordström C, Vincent J (2014) Hybrid entrepreneurship: the importance of passion. Baltic J Manag 9(3):314–329Google Scholar
  50. Tornikoski ET, Viljamaa A, Varamäki E (2015) Hybrid entrepreneurship during retirement: comparison of motives and aspirations. In: Sappleton N, Lourenço F (eds) Entrepreneurship, self-employment and retirement. Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp 187–208Google Scholar
  51. Trigeorgis L (1996) Real options: managerial flexibility and strategy in resource allocation. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  52. Viljamaa A, Varamäki E, Joensuusalo S (2018) Best of both worlds? Persistent hybrid entrepreneurship. J Enterp Cult 25(4):339–359Google Scholar
  53. Vivarelli M (2004) Are all the potential entrepreneurs so good? Small Bus Econ 23(1):41–49Google Scholar
  54. Wang DX, Ye QY (2016) A review of research on decision-making process and multi-layer influencing factors of employees’ resignation and entrepreneurship. Econ Manag 11:187–199Google Scholar
  55. Wernerfelt B (1984) A resource-based view of the firm. Strateg Manag J 5(2):171–180Google Scholar
  56. Wennberg K, Folta TB, Delmar F (2006) A real options model of stepwise entry into self-employment. Front Entrep Res 26(6):3Google Scholar
  57. Xi G, Block JH, Lasch F (2017) Mode of entry into hybrid entrepreneurship: new venture start-up versus business takeover. Iza discussion paperGoogle Scholar
  58. Ye MH, Wang W, Zhang YC (2011) Entrepreneurial process model based on system theory. Sci Res Manag 32(11):123–130Google Scholar
  59. Zhao H, Seibert SE, Lumpkin G (2010) The relationship of personality to entrepreneurial intentions and performance: a meta-analytic review. J Manag 36(2):381–404Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Business SchoolHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center Between World Water Valley and Water Ecological CivilizationNanjingChina
  3. 3.School of Business AdministrationNanjing Audit UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations