An exploratory classification of applications in the realm of collaborative modeling and design

  • Ebrahim Bagheri
  • Ali A. Ghorbani
Original Article


The high complexity and diversity of today’s design projects demands the participation of multiple experts. The participating experts can influence the design process by sharing their perspective, expertise and resources. The involvement of various experts is often known as collaborative modeling and design. A collaborative modeling environment can encompass various geographical or organizational boundaries. In this paper, we provide a classification to study various aspects of this important issue through the exploration of the existing models, methods and applications in this area. The paper further addresses both model-oriented and artifact-neutral collaboration approaches and enumerates their features. The paper introduces the features of and classifies several relevant applications. The classification can serve as a guideline for customizing a suitable setting for a collaborative modeling process based on given requirements, needs and demands. Several suggestions for future work are also provided.


Collaborative modeling Distributed design Coordination Cooperation 


  1. Anumba CJ, Ugwu OO, Newnham L, Thorpe A (2002) Collaborative design of structures using intelligent agents. Autom Construction 11(1):89–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Apiwattanapong T, Orso A, Harrold MJ (2007) Jdiff: a differencing technique and tool for object-oriented programs. Autom Softw Eng 14(1):3–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold RS (1996) Software change impact analysis. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los AlamitosGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagheri E, Ghorbani AA (2007) On the collaborative development of para-consistent conceptual models. In: The seventh international conference on quality software (QSIC’07), IEEE 2007Google Scholar
  5. Benford S, Greenhalgh C, Rodden T, Pycock J (2001) Collaborative virtual environments. Commun ACM 44(7):79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernstein PA, Melnik S, Mork P (2005) Interactive schema translation with instance-level mappings. In: VLDB ’05: proceedings of the 31st international conference on very large data bases, VLDB Endowment, pp 1283–1286Google Scholar
  7. Bézivin J, Jouault F, Touzet D (2005) An introduction to the atlas model management architecture. Tech. Report 05-01, LINAGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanc X, Sriplakich P, Gervais M-P (2005) Modeling services and web services: application of modelbus. Software Engineering Research and Practice, pp 557–563Google Scholar
  9. Bossung S, Stoeckle H, Grundy JC, Amor R, Hosking JG (2004) Automated data mapping specification via schema heuristics and user interaction. ASE, pp 208–217Google Scholar
  10. Briggs RO, Nunamaker JF (1994) Getting a grip on groupware. In: Lloyd (ed) Groupware in the 21st century. Adamantine Press, London, pp 61–72Google Scholar
  11. Briggs RO, Nunamaker JF Jr, Sprague RH Jr (1997) 1001 Unanswered research questions in GSS. J Manage Inf Sys 14(3):3–21Google Scholar
  12. Caldwell NHM, Rodgers PA (1998) Webcadet: facilitating distributed design support. Web-Based Knowledge Servers (Digest No. 1998/307), IEE Colloquium on, 1998, pp 9/1–9/4Google Scholar
  13. Case M, Lu SCY (1999) A discourse model for collaborative design. Cooperative knowledge processing for engineering design. Kluwer, Deventer, pp 205–224Google Scholar
  14. Chen H, Hsu P, Orwig R, Hoopes L, Nunamaker JF (1994) Automatic concept classification of text from electronic meetings. Commun ACM 37(10):56–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen H, Houston A, Nunamaker J, Yen J (1996) Toward Intelligent Meeting Agents. IEEE Comp 8:62–70Google Scholar
  16. Chen H, Nunamaker J Jr, Orwig R, Titkova O (1998) Information Visualization for Collaborative Computing. Computer 31(8):75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen XL, Fuh JYH, Wong YS, Lu YQ, Li WD, Qiu ZM (2005) An adaptable model for distributed collaborative design. Comp Aided Des Appl 2(14):47–55Google Scholar
  18. Cocreate, CoCreate OneSpace,, visited 08/2007, 2007
  19. Cohen PR, Levesque HJ (1997) Communicative actions for artificial agents. In: Bradshaw JM (ed) Software agents. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 419–436Google Scholar
  20. Conklin J (2003) Dialog mapping: reflections on an industrial strength case study. Visualizing argumentation: software tools for collaborative and educational sense-making. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 117–136Google Scholar
  21. Conklin J, Begeman ML (1988) gibis: a hypertext tool for exploratory policy discussion. In: CSCW ’88: proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work. ACM Press, New York, pp 140–152Google Scholar
  22. Damian DE, Eberlein A, Shaw MLG, Gaines BR (2003) An exploratory study of facilitation in distributed requirements engineering. Requir Eng 8(1):23–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davies J, Studer R, Sure Y, Warren PW (2005) Next generation knowledge management. BT Technol J 23(3):175–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Détienne F (2006) Collaborative design: managing task interdependencies and multiple perspectives. Interact Comput 18(1):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Doan A, Madhavan J, Dhamankar R, Domingos P, Halevy AY (2003) Learning to match ontologies on the semantic web. VLDB J 12(4):303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dragut E, Lawrence R (2004) Composing mappings between schemas using a reference ontology. On the move to meaningful internet systems 2004: CoopIS, DOA, and ODBASE, pp 783–800Google Scholar
  27. Easterbrook S (1994) Resolving requirements conflicts with computer-supported negotiation. Requirements engineering: social and technical issues. Academic Press Professional, Inc., San Diego, pp 41–65Google Scholar
  28. Easterbrook SM, Chechik M (2001) A framework for multi-valued reasoning over inconsistent viewpoints. ICSE, pp 411–420Google Scholar
  29. Edwards WK (1997) Flexible conflict detection and management in collaborative applications. In: UIST ’97: proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology. ACM Press, New York, pp 139–148Google Scholar
  30. Egger E, Wagner I (1992) Time-management: a case for cscw. In: CSCW ’92: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on computer-supported cooperative work. ACM Press, New York, pp 249–256Google Scholar
  31. Engel KD, Paige RF, Kolovos DS (2006) Using a model merging language for reconciling model versions. ECMDA-FA, pp 143–157Google Scholar
  32. Engeström Y (1987) Learning by expanding: an activity-theoretical approach to developmental research. Orienta-konsultit, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  33. Falzon P (1994) Dialogues fonctionnels et activité collective. Le Travail Humain 57(4):299–312Google Scholar
  34. Fletcher J, Cleland-Huang J (2006) Softgoal traceability patterns. In: ISSRE ’06: Proceedings of the 17th international symposium on software reliability engineering. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, pp 363–374Google Scholar
  35. Fox G (2001) Peer-to-peer networks. Comp Sci Eng 3(3):75–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fuh JYH, Li WD (2005) Advances in collaborative cad: the-state-of-the art. Comp Aided Des 37(5):571–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gangemi A, Guarino N, Masolo C, Oltramari A, Schneider L (2002) Sweetening ontologies with dolce. Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management. In: Proceedings of ontologies and the semantic Web: 13th international conference, EKAW 2002, Siguenza, Spain, 1–4 October 2002, pp 223–233Google Scholar
  38. Ghose A, Lin Q (2006) Viewpoints merging via incrementally elicited ranked structures. QSIC, pp 141–150Google Scholar
  39. Girschick M (2006) Difference detection and visualization in UML class diagrams. Technical report TUDCS-2006-5, TU DarmstadtGoogle Scholar
  40. Godefroid P, Herbsleb JD, Jagadeesany LJ, Li D (2000) Ensuring privacy in presence awareness: an automated verification approach. In: CSCW ’00: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work. ACM Press, New York, pp 59–68Google Scholar
  41. Herbsleb JD, Grinter RE (1999) Splitting the organization and integrating the code: Conway’s law revisited. In: ICSE ’99: proceedings of the 21st international conference on software engineering. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, pp 85–95Google Scholar
  42. Huang GQ, Mak KL (1999) Design for manufacture and assembly on the internet. Comput Ind 38(1):17–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hughes J, King V, Rodden T, Andersen H (1994) Moving out from the control room: ethnography in system design. In: CSCW ’94: proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work. ACM Press, New York, pp 429–439Google Scholar
  44. Kalfoglou Y, Schorlemmer WM (2003) If-map: an ontology-mapping method based on information-flow theory. J Data Semantics 1:98–127Google Scholar
  45. Kalfoglou Y, Schorlemmer M (2005) Ontology mapping: the state of the art. In: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, no. 04391, Internationales Begegnungs- und Forschungszentrum fuer Informatik (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaiya H, Shinbara D, Kawano J, Saeki M (2005) Improving the detection of requirements discordances among stakeholders. Requir Eng 10(4):289–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Karacapilidis N, Papadias D (1998) Hermes: supporting argumentative discourse in multi-agent decision making. AAAI ’98/IAAI ’98: Proceedings of the fifteenth national/tenth conference on Artificial intelligence/Innovative applications of artificial intelligence. American Association for Artificial Intelligence, Menlo Park, pp 827–832Google Scholar
  48. Kawashima T, Ma J (2004) Tomscop a synchronous p2p collaboration platform over JXTA. In: ICDCSW ’04: proceedings of the 24th international conference on distributed computing systems workshops—W7: EC (ICDCSW’04). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, pp 85–90Google Scholar
  49. Kelter U, Wehren J, Niere J (2005) A generic difference algorithm for uml models. In: Liggesmeyer P, Pohl K, Goedicke M (eds) Software engineering. LNI, vol 64, GI, pp 105–116Google Scholar
  50. Kolovos DS, Paige RF, Polack FAC (2006) On-demand merging of traceability links with models. 3rd ECMDA-Traceability workshopGoogle Scholar
  51. Kotis K, Vouros GA, Alonso JP (2004) HCOME: A tool-supported methodology for engineering living ontologies. In: Proceedings of the second international workshop on semantic web and databases (SWDB'04). Springer, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  52. Lewandowski A, Bourguin G (2006) Supporting collaboration in software development activities. Computer supported cooperative work in design, 2006. In: CSCWD ’06. 10th International Conference on, 2006, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  53. Li WD, Lu WF, Fuh JYH, Wong YS (2005) Collaborative computer-aided design–research and development status. Comp Aided Des 37(9):931–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Limón AE, Garbajosa J (2005) The need for a unifying traceability scheme. 2nd ECMDA-Traceability WorkshopGoogle Scholar
  55. Lombard M, Yesilbas GL (2006) Towards a framework to manage formalised exchanges during collaborative design. Math Comp Simulation 70(5–6):343–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Maedche A, Motik B, Silva N, Volz R (2002) Mafra—a mapping framework for distributed ontologies. Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management. In: Proceedings of ontologies and the semantic web: 13th international conference, EKAW 2002, Siguenza, Spain, 1–4 October, pp 69–75Google Scholar
  57. Marashi E, Davis JP (2004) A framework for supporting discourse in the design decision-making process. In: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on decision making in urban and civil engineeringGoogle Scholar
  58. Mens T (2002) A state-of-the-art survey on software merging. IEEE Trans Softw Eng 28(5):449–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mens T, Mens (2000) A uniform declarative framework for automated software merging. Technical Report vub-prog-tr-00-04, Programming Technology Lab, Vrije Universiteit BrusselGoogle Scholar
  60. Mishra P, Varshney A, Kaufman A (1997) Collabcad: A toolkit for integrated synchronous and asynchronous sharing of cad applications. In: Proceedings TeamCAD: GVU/NIST Workshop on Collaborative Design, Atlanta, GA, USAGoogle Scholar
  61. Nardi B (ed) (1997) Studying context: a comparison of activity theory, situated action models, and distributed cognition. In: Context and consciousness: activity theory and human computer interaction. MIT press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  62. Nejati S, Sabetzadeh M, Chechik M, Easterbrook S, Zave P (2007) Matching and merging of statecharts specifications. In: ICSE 2007, 29th international conference on Software engineering, 2007, pp 54–64Google Scholar
  63. Niles I, Pease A (2001) Towards a standard upper ontology. In: FOIS ’01: proceedings of the international conference on formal ontology in information systems. ACM Press, New York, pp 2–9Google Scholar
  64. Noy NF (2004) Semantic integration: a survey of ontology-based approaches. SIGMOD Record 33(4):65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Noy NF, Musen MA (2002) Promptdiff: a fixed-point algorithm for comparing ontology versions. In: Eighteenth national conference on Artificial intelligence. American Association for Artificial Intelligence, Menlo Park, pp 744–750Google Scholar
  66. Orso A, Shi N, Harrold MJ (2004) Scaling regression testing to large software systems. SIGSOFT Softw Eng Notes 29(6):241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pahng G-DF, Bae S, Wallace D (1998) A web-based collaborative design modeling environment. In: WETICE ’98: proceedings of the 7th workshop on enabling technologies. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, pp 161–167Google Scholar
  68. Penichet VMR, Marin I, Gallud JA, Lozano MD, Tesoriero R (2007) A classification method for cscw systems. Electronic Notes Theor Comp Sci 168:237–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pottinger R, Bernstein PA (2003) Merging models based on given correspondences. VLDB, pp 826–873Google Scholar
  70. Rahm E, Bernstein PA (2001) A survey of approaches to automatic schema matching. VLDB J 10(4):334–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rahwan I, Ramchurn SD, Jennings NR, Mcburney P, Parsons S, Sonenberg L (2003) Argumentation-based negotiation. Knowl Eng Rev 18(4):343–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ramires J, Antunes P, Respício A (2005) Software requirements negotiation using the software quality function deployment. CRIWG, pp 308–324Google Scholar
  73. Raposo AB, Gerosa MA, Fuks H (2004) Combining communication and coordination toward articulation of collaborative activities. Groupware: Design, Implementation and Use, pp 121–136Google Scholar
  74. Robinson N, Fickas S (1994) Supporting multi-perspective requirements engineering. In: Proceedings of the first international conference on requirements engineering, 1994, pp 206–215Google Scholar
  75. Rittel H, Kunz W (1970) Issues as elements of information systems working. Tech. report, paper 131. Institut fur Grundlagen der Ylanung I.A. University of StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  76. Sabetzadeh M, Easterbrook SM (2006) View merging in the presence of incompleteness and inconsistency. Requir Eng 11(3):174–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sabetzadeh M, Nejati S, Liaskos S, Easterbrook S, Chechik M (2007) Consistency checking of conceptual models via model merging. In: 15th IEEE international requirements engineering conference (RE’07)Google Scholar
  78. Sarma A (2005) A survey of collaborative tools in software development. Tech. report, A. Sarma, a survey of collaborative tools in software development. UCI, ISR Technical Report, UCI-ISR-05-3, March 2005Google Scholar
  79. Shvaiko P, Euzenat J (2005) A survey of schema-based matching approaches. J Data Semantics IV:146–171Google Scholar
  80. Slimani K, Ferreira Da Silva C, Medini L, Ghodus P (2006) Conflict mitigation in collaborative design. Int J Prod Res 44(9):1681–1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Spanoudakis G, Zisman A (2001) Inconsistency management in software engineering: Survey and open research issues. Handbook of software engineering and knowledge engineering, vol. 1, pp 329–380Google Scholar
  82. Sycara KP (1990) Persuasive argumentation in negotiation. Theory Decis 28(3):203–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tempich C, Pinto HS, Sure Y, Staab S (2005) An argumentation ontology for distributed, loosely-controlled and evolving engineering processes of ontologies (diligent). ESWC, pp 241–256Google Scholar
  84. Tun NN (2006) Semantic enrichment in ontologies for matching. In: AOW ’06: proceedings of the second Australasian workshop on advances in ontologies. Australian Computer Society, Inc., Darlinghurst, Australia, Australia, pp 91–100Google Scholar
  85. Twitchell DP, Wiers K, Adkins M, Burgoon JK, Nunamaker JF Jr (2005) Strikecom: A multi-player online strategy game for researching and teaching group dynamics. In: 38th Annual Hawaii international conference on system sciences (HICSS’05), vol 1, p45bGoogle Scholar
  86. Uchitel S, Chechik M (2004) Merging partial behavioural models. SIGSOFT FSE, pp 43–52Google Scholar
  87. van der Hoek A, Heimbigner D, Wolf AL (1996) A generic, peer-to-peer repository for distributed configuration management. In: ICSE ’96: Proceedings of the 18th international conference on Software engineering. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, pp 308–317Google Scholar
  88. Wang L, Shen W, Xie H, Neelamkavil J, Pardasani A (2002) Collaborative conceptual design-state of the art and future trends. Comp Aided Des 34(16):981–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wang Y, Dewitt DJ, Cai JY (2003) X-diff: an effective change detection algorithm for xml documents. In: Proceedings of 19th international conference on data engineering, 2003, pp 519–530Google Scholar
  90. Whitehead J (2007) Collaboration in software engineering: a roadmap. In: FOSE ’07: 2007 Future of Software Engineering. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, pp 214–225Google Scholar
  91. Zha XF, Du H (2006) Knowledge-intensive collaborative design modeling and support: Part I: Review, distributed models and framework. Comput Ind 57(1):39–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Computer ScienceUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations