Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the programmed cell death protein-1 (PDCD1), programmed cell death protein-1 ligand-1 (PDCD1LG1), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) genes are implicated in the pathogenesis of some cancers. We investigated the role of PDCD1, PDCD1LG1, and CTLA4 SNPs in MM pathogenesis and the susceptibility to and clinical features of multiple myeloma (MM). We obtained genomic DNA from 124 patients with MM and 211 healthy controls and detected PDCD1 (rs36084323, rs41386349, and rs2227982), PDCD1LG1 (rs2297136 and rs4143815), and CTLA4 (rs733618, rs11571316, rs231775, and rs3087243) genotypes using the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism method or the TaqMan allelic discrimination real-time PCR method. The patients with MM had a significantly higher frequency of the PDCD1 GCC/GCC haplotype (rs36084323/rs41386349/rs2227982) compared with the healthy controls. PDCD1 rs2227982 CC genotype was associated significantly with a higher frequency of bone lesions. Patients with PDCD1LG1 rs2297136 TT and TC types (high-expression types) showed lower albumin level than those with CC genotype. In addition, the PDCD1LG1 rs4143815 CC and CG types (high-expression types) were associated significantly with higher frequency of patients who were treated with thalidomide and/or bortezomib. However, there was no statistical significance between CTLA4 polymorphisms and clinical variables of patients with MM. There were no significant differences between all the polymorphisms and OS. Our study indicates that the PDCD1 haplotype is associated with a susceptibility to MM. The PDCD1 rs2227982 and PDCD1LG1 rs2297136 affect the clinical features of multiple myeloma patients.
Programmed cell death protein-1 Programmed cell death protein-1 ligand-1 Multiple myeloma Polymorphism
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This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI (Grant Number JP 16K19190).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board of Gunma University Hospital (Approval #160007) and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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