Clinical and Experimental Medicine

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 495–504 | Cite as

Cell adhesion molecules and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: influence of metabolic syndrome

  • Marcelo Cândido de Sá
  • Andréa Name Colado SimãoEmail author
  • Fabiano Aparecido de Medeiros
  • Tatiana Mayumi Veiga Iriyoda
  • Neide Tomimura Costa
  • Daniela Frizon Alfieri
  • Tamires Flauzino
  • Bruno Alexandre Sekiguchi
  • Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy
  • Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche
  • Michael Maes
  • Isaias Dichi
Original Article


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory and systemic disease characterized by endothelial activation. The main objective of this study was to verify the profile of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) in RA patients, and the influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and drugs used in the treatment of RA in this profile. A second objective was to propose models of prediction of activity in RA using these biomarkers. A total of 115 healthy individuals and 144 RA patients were enrolled. Disease activity was determined by DAS28 (disease activity score 28) based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) or C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP). Serum CAM and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), anthropometric and immunological parameters were measured. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was significantly decreased, and PAI-1 was significantly higher in RA patients as compared to controls. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that VCAM-1, CRP, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) predicted RA with a sensitivity of 95.9% and a specificity of 89.5%. 42.9% of the variance in DAS28-ESR and 49.2% of the variance in DAS28-CRP are explained by increased PAI-1, TNF-α, body mass index (BMI) and decreased platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1). Our data show that lower levels of VCAM-1 are associated with RA independently of MetS, while increased PAI-1 levels were associated with both RA and MetS and increased selectins (E-selectin and P-selectin) were exclusively associated with MetS and not with RA. A model to predict disease activity based on PECAM-1, PAI-1, TNF-α, age and BMI is proposed.


Rheumatoid arthritis Cell adhesion molecules Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 Metabolic syndrome Tumor necrosis factor-α 



This study was supported by the National Council of Brazilian Research-CNPq and by Araucária Foundation from the state of Paraná. We thank the University Hospital of State University of Londrina and HUTec Foundation for technical and administrative supports.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

All the participants included in this study provided written informed consent.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcelo Cândido de Sá
    • 1
  • Andréa Name Colado Simão
    • 2
    Email author
  • Fabiano Aparecido de Medeiros
    • 1
  • Tatiana Mayumi Veiga Iriyoda
    • 3
  • Neide Tomimura Costa
    • 4
  • Daniela Frizon Alfieri
    • 5
  • Tamires Flauzino
    • 5
  • Bruno Alexandre Sekiguchi
    • 6
  • Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy
    • 2
  • Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche
    • 2
  • Michael Maes
    • 7
  • Isaias Dichi
    • 8
  1. 1.Post-Graduate Program in Clinical and Laboratory PathophysiologyUniversity of LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Clinical Analysis and ToxicologyUniversity of LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of RheumatologyPontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUC/PR)LondrinaBrazil
  4. 4.Department of RheumatologyUniversity of LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  5. 5.Post-Graduate Program in Health SciencesUniversity of LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  6. 6.Post-Graduate Program in Experimental PathologyUniversity of LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  7. 7.IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of MedicineDeakin UniversityGeelongAustralia
  8. 8.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of LondrinaLondrinaBrazil

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