Clinical and Experimental Medicine

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 33–43 | Cite as

Long non-coding RNA CARLo-5 expression is associated with disease progression and predicts outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma patients

  • Fuqiang Wang
  • Chengrong Xie
  • Wenxing Zhao
  • Zhigang Deng
  • Huili YangEmail author
  • Qinliang FangEmail author
Original Article


Recently, many studies show that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in cancer biology. Although its expression was reported dysregulated during tumorigenesis, the contributions of lncRNAs to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still largely unknown. In particular, the lncRNA CARLo-5 has a functional role in cell-cycle regulation in colon cancer, while the clinical significance and biological function of CARLo-5 in HCC remain unelucidated. In order to fill those study blanks, the expression level of CARLo-5 in human HCC specimens was tested, and its correlation with clinicopathologic features as well as the prognosis for patients with HCC was analyzed. Additionally, MTT, wound healing and transwell assays were employed to investigate the biological function of CARLo-5. The results showed that CARLo-5 levels were significantly overexpressed in HCC tissues compared to ANLT. Besides, high expression of CARLo-5 was associated with liver cirrhosis (P = 0.001), tumor number (P < 0.001), vascular invasion (P = 0.001), capsular formation (P = 0.014) and Edmondson–Steiner grade (P < 0.001), which proved that CARLo-5 was an independent risk factor for overall survival and disease-free survival. In addition, in highly metastatic HCC cell lines (HCCLM3 and MHCC97-L), CARLo-5 was up-regulated, but in lowly metastatic HCC cell lines (HepG2, SNU387), it showed down-regulated. Besides, by using gain and loss of function experiments in HCC cell lines (HCCLM3 and HepG2), the results showed that CARLo-5 overexpression significantly enhanced cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Our study also revealed that CARLo-5 was prominently up-regulated in HCC specimens and its high expression was associated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. Totally, those findings together indicate that CARLo-5 promotes proliferation and metastasis of HCC and potentially emerged as a novel therapeutic target.


CARLo-5 Hepatocellular carcinoma lncRNA Metastasis Prognosis 



This work was supported by medical innovation subject of Fujian Province (2009-CXB-58).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There were no financial disclosures from any authors.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 1239 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (TIFF 1516 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen UniversityFujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular CarcinomaXiamenChina
  2. 2.Medical College of Xiamen UniversityFujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular CarcinomaXiamenChina
  3. 3.Department of General SurgeryMianYang Central HospitalMianyanngChina
  4. 4.Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen UniversityFujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular CarcinomaXiamenChina

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