Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 845–881 | Cite as

Modeling and prediction of flow-induced hemolysis: a review

  • Mohammad M. Faghih
  • M. Keith SharpEmail author
Review Paper


Despite decades of research related to hemolysis, the accuracy of prediction algorithms for complex flows leaves much to be desired. Fundamental questions remain about how different types of fluid stresses translate to red cell membrane failure. While cellular- and molecular-level simulations hold promise, spatial resolution to such small scales is computationally intensive. This review summarizes approaches to continuum-level modeling of hemolysis, a method that is likely to be useful well into the future for design of typical cardiovascular devices. Weaknesses are revealed for the Eulerian method of hemolysis prediction and for the linearized damage function. Wide variations in scaling of red cell membrane tension are demonstrated with different types of fluid stresses when the scalar fluid stress is the same, as well as when the energy dissipation rate is the same. New experimental data are needed for red cell damage in simple flows with controlled levels of different types of stresses, including laminar shear, laminar extension (normal), turbulent shear, and turbulent extension. Such data can be curve-fit to create more universal continuum-level models and can serve to validate numerical simulations.


Mechanical blood damage Hemolysis prediction models Red blood cell membrane failure Ventricular assist devices Laminar and turbulent blood flows 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biofluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

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