A nonlinear homogenized finite element analysis of the primary stability of the bone–implant interface
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Stability of an implant is defined by its ability to undergo physiological loading–unloading cycles without showing excessive tissue damage and micromotions at the interface. Distinction is usually made between the immediate primary stability and the long-term, secondary stability resulting from the biological healing process. The aim of this research is to numerically investigate the effect of initial implantation press-fit, bone yielding, densification and friction at the interface on the primary stability of a simple bone–implant system subjected to loading–unloading cycles. In order to achieve this goal, human trabecular bone was modeled as a continuous, elasto-plastic tissue with damage and densification, which material constants depend on bone volume fraction and fabric. Implantation press-fit related damage in the bone was simulated by expanding the drilled hole to the outer contour of the implant. The bone–implant interface was then modeled with unilateral contact with friction. The implant was modeled as a rigid body and was subjected to increasing off-axis loading cycles. This modeling approach is able to capture the experimentally observed primary stability in terms of initial stiffness, ultimate force and progression of damage. In addition, it is able to quantify the micromotions around the implant relevant for bone healing and osseointegration. In conclusion, the computationally efficient modeling approach used in this study provides a realistic structural response of the bone–implant interface and represents a powerful tool to explore implant design, implantation press-fit and the resulting risk of implant failure under physiological loading.
KeywordsBone–implant interface Primary stability Finite element modeling Damage Contact Press-fit Friction
The authors gratefully acknowledge RMS for their financial support Grant No. E16_0001 HOM-FEM and Nobel Biocare for supporting the realization of the experiments.
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Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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