Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 1363–1378 | Cite as

Finite element implementation of a multiscale model of the human lens capsule

Original Paper


An axisymmetric finite element implementation of a previously described structural constitutive model for the human lens capsule (Burd in Biomech Model Mechanobiol 8(3):217–231, 2009) is presented. This constitutive model is based on a hyperelastic approach in which the network of collagen IV within the capsule is represented by an irregular hexagonal planar network of hyperelastic bars, embedded in a hyperelastic matrix. The paper gives a detailed specification of the model and the periodic boundary conditions adopted for the network component. Momentum balance equations for the network are derived in variational form. These balance equations are used to develop a nonlinear solution scheme to enable the equilibrium configuration of the network to be computed. The constitutive model is implemented within a macroscopic finite element framework to give a multiscale model of the lens capsule. The possibility of capsule wrinkling is included in the formulation. To achieve this implementation, values of the first and second derivatives of the strain energy density with respect to the in-plane stretch ratios need to be computed at the local, constitutive model, level. Procedures to determine these strain energy derivatives at equilibrium configurations of the network are described. The multiscale model is calibrated against previously published experimental data on isolated inflation and uniaxial stretching of ex vivo human capsule samples. Two independent example lens capsule inflation analyses are presented.


Multiscale Human lens capsule  Accommodation Collagen 



The mesh for the in situ capsule inflation analysis was generated by GS Wilde. The authors acknowledge the assistance provided by RI Barraquer, S Krag, H Martin and R Michael in providing numerical values of previously published experimental data. RAR gratefully acknowledges funding from the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) grant W81XWH-10-1-1036, the US–UK Fulbright Commission, and the Royal Society International Exchanges Scheme.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Engineering ScienceOxford UniversityOxfordUK
  2. 2.Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural EngineeringUniversity of Colorado BoulderBoulderUSA

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