Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 1205–1220 | Cite as

Three-dimensional surface geometries of the rabbit soleus muscle during contraction: input for biomechanical modelling and its validation

  • Markus Böl
  • Kay Leichsenring
  • Christine Weichert
  • Maike Sturmat
  • Philipp Schenk
  • Reinhard Blickhan
  • Tobias Siebert
Original Paper


There exists several numerical approaches to describe the active contractile behaviour of skeletal muscles. These models range from simple one-dimensional to more advanced three-dimensional ones; especially, three-dimensional models take up the cause of describing complex contraction modes in a realistic way. However, the validation of such concepts is challenging, as the combination of geometry, material and force characteristics is so far not available from the same muscle. To this end, we present in this study a comprehensive data set of the rabbit soleus muscle consisting of the muscles’ characteristic force responses (active and passive), its three-dimensional shape during isometric, isotonic and isokinetic contraction experiments including the spatial arrangement of muscle tissue and aponeurosis–tendon complex, and the fascicle orientation throughout the whole muscle at its optimal length. In this way, an extensive data set is available giving insight into the three-dimensional geometry of the rabbit soleus muscle and, further, allowing to validate three-dimensional numerical models.


Three-dimensional geometry Rabbit soleus muscle Muscle geometry Muscle data set  Model validation 



Partial support for this research was provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grants BO 3091/4-1 and SI 841/3-1.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Böl
    • 1
  • Kay Leichsenring
    • 2
  • Christine Weichert
    • 1
  • Maike Sturmat
    • 1
  • Philipp Schenk
    • 2
  • Reinhard Blickhan
    • 2
  • Tobias Siebert
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Solid MechanicsTechnische Universität BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Motion ScienceFriedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaJenaGermany
  3. 3.University of StuttgartDepartment of Sport and Motion SciencestuttgartGermany

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