A dynamical study of the mechanical stimuli and tissue differentiation within a CaP scaffold based on micro-CT finite element models
The control of the mechanical stimuli transmitted to the cells is critical for the design of functional scaffolds for tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the mechanical stimuli transmitted to the cells during tissue differentiation in an irregular morphology scaffold under compressive load and perfusion flow. A calcium phosphate-based glass porous scaffold was used. The solid phase and the fluid flow within the pores were modeled as linear elastic solid material and Newtonian fluid, respectively. In the fluid model, different levels of viscosity were used to simulate tissue differentiation. Compressive strain of 0.5% and fluid flow with constant inlet velocity of 10 μm/s or constant inlet pressure of 3 Pa were applied. Octahedral shear strain and fluid shear stress were used as mechano-regulatory stimuli. For constant inlet velocity, stimuli equivalent to bone were predicted in 80% of pore volume for the case of low tissue viscosity. For the cases of high viscosity, fluctuations between stimuli equivalent to tissue formation and cell death were predicted due to the increase in the fluid shear stress when tissue started to fill pores. When constant pressure was applied, stimuli equivalent to bone were predicted in 62% of pore volume when low tissue viscosity was used and 42% when high tissue viscosity was used. This study predicted critical variations of fluid shear stress when cells differentiated. If these variations are not controlled in vitro, they can impede the formation of new matured tissue.
KeywordsTissue engineering Calcium phosphate Mechanoregulation Micro computed tomography Finite element modeling
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