Simulation of bone tissue formation within a porous scaffold under dynamic compression
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A computational model of mechanoregulation is proposed to predict bone tissue formation stimulated mechanically by overall dynamical compression within a porous polymeric scaffold rendered by micro-CT. Dynamic compressions of 0.5–5% at 0.0025–0.025 s−1 were simulated. A force-controlled dynamic compression was also performed by imposing a ramp of force from 1 to 70 N. The model predicts homogeneous mature bone tissue formation under strain levels of 0.5–1% at strain rates of 0.0025–0.005 s−1. Under higher levels of strain and strain rates, the scaffold shows heterogeneous mechanical behaviour which leads to the formation of a heterogeneous tissue with a mixture of mature bone and fibrous tissue. A fibrous tissue layer was also predicted under the force-controlled dynamic compression, although the same force magnitude was found promoting only mature bone during a strain-controlled compression. The model shows that the mechanical stimulation of bone tissue formation within a porous scaffold closely depends on the loading history and on the mechanical behaviour of the scaffold at local and global scales.
KeywordsBone tissue engineering Scaffold Tissue differentiation Mechanoregulation Finite element analysis
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