The influence of fluid shear stress on the remodeling of the embryonic primary capillary plexus
- 105 Downloads
The primary capillary plexus in early yolk sacs is remodeled into matured vitelline vessels aligned in the direction of blood flow at the onset of cardiac contraction. We hypothesized that the influence of fluid shear stress on cellular behaviors may be an underlying mechanism by which some existing capillary channels remain open while others are closed during remodeling. Using a recently developed E-Tmod knock-out/lacZ knock-in mouse model, we showed that erythroblasts exhibited rheological properties similar to those of a viscous cell suspension. In contrast, the non-erythroblast (NE) cells, which attach among themselves within the yolk sac, are capable of lamellipodia extension and cell migration. Isolated NE cells in a parallel-plate flow chamber exposed to fluid shear stress, however, ceased lamellipodia extension. Such response may minimize NE cell migration into domains exposed to fluid shear stress. A two-dimensional mathematical model incorporating these cellular behaviors demonstrated that shear stress created by the blood flow initiated by the embryonic heart contraction might be needed for the remodeling of primary capillary plexus.
KeywordsAngiogenesis Embryonic vascular development Fluid shear stress Microvascular growth Primary capillary plexus Vasculogenesis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Fisher AB, Chien S, Barakat AI, Nerem RM (2001) Endothelial cellular response to altered shear stress. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 281:L529–L533Google Scholar
- Fukuda S, Schmid-Schönbein GW (2002) Centrifugation annihilates the fluid shear response of circulating leukocytes. J Leuk Biol 72:133–139Google Scholar
- Hogan B, Beddington R, Costantini F, Lacy E (1994) Manipulating the Mouse Embryo: Second Edition. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, pp 373–375Google Scholar
- Murray JD, Swanson KR (1999) On the mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation with applications to wound healing and angiogenesis. In: Chaplain M, McLachlan JC, Singh G (eds) On growth and form: spatio-temporal pattern formation in biology. Wiley, Chichester, pp 251–285Google Scholar
- Sato TN, Loughna S (2002) Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In mouse development. Academic, New York, pp 211–233Google Scholar