Impact of ocean–wave coupling on typhoon-induced waves and surge levels around the Korean Peninsula: a case study of Typhoon Bolaven
Typhoon-induced waves and surges are important when predicting potential hazards near coastal regions. In this paper, we applied a coupled modeling system for ocean–wave interaction to examine prediction capabilities for typhoon-induced waves and surges around the Korean Peninsula. To identify how ocean–wave coupling impacts wave and surge simulations during typhoon conditions, a set of comparative experiments was performed during Typhoon Bolaven (2012): (1) a fully coupled ocean–wave model, (2) a one-way coupled ocean–wave model without surface current feedback and ocean-to-wave water levels, and (3) a stand-alone ocean model without considering wave-based sea surface roughness (SSR). When coupled with the ocean model, the surface current reduced significantly the wave height on the right-hand side of the advancing typhoon track and improved prediction accuracy along the southern coast of Korea. Compared with the observed surge levels, the simulated surge height yielded improved results for peak height magnitude and timing compared with the uncoupled model. For wave-to-surge feedback, we found that wave-induced SSR plays an important role by modulating wind stress in the surface layer. The modulated wind stress directly affected the surge height, which improved surge peak prediction during the typhoon.
KeywordsWave–ocean interaction Sea surface roughness Typhoon Wave energy Storm surge
We thank the three reviewers who provided important and insightful comments that significantly improved the manuscript.
This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMI2018-07610.
- Haidvogel DB, Arango H, Budgell WP, Cornuelle BD, Curchitser E, Di Lorenzo E, Fennel K, Geyer WR, Hermann AJ, Lanerolle L, Levin J, McWilliams JC, Miller AJ, Moore AM, Powell TM, Shchepetkin AF, Sherwood CR, Signell RP, Warner JC, Wilkin J, Levin J (2008) Ocean forecasting in terrain-following coordinates: formulation and skill assessment of the Regional Ocean Modeling System. J Comput Phys 227(7):3595–3624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kumar N, Voulgaris G, Warner JC, & Olabarrieta M (2012) Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications. Ocean Model 47:65–95Google Scholar
- Mori N, Takada R, Yasuda T, Mase H, Kim SY (2009) Effects of wave radiation stress and vertical mixing on storm surge. In: Proceedings of coastal dynamics 2009: impacts of human activities on dynamic coastal processes (with CD-ROM) (pp. 1–11)Google Scholar
- Olabarrieta M, Warner JC, Kumar N (2011) Wave-current interaction in Willapa Bay. J Geophys Res Oceans 116(C12)Google Scholar
- Phillips OM (1977) The dynamics of the upper ocean. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Zheng P, Li M, van der A DA, van der Zanden J, Wolf J, Chen X, Wang C (2017) A 3D unstructured grid nearshore hydrodynamic model based on the vortex force formalism. Ocean Model 116:48–69Google Scholar