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Tide circulation patterns in a coastal lagoon under sea-level rise

Abstract

This study evaluates the patterns and effects of relative sea-level rise on the tidal circulation of the basin of the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon using a process-based model that is solved on an unstructured mesh. To predict the changes in the lagoon tidal circulation in the year 2100, the model is forced by tides and a static sea level. The bathymetry and the basin geometry are updated in response to sea-level rise for three morphological response scenarios: no bed updating, barrier island rollover, and basin infilling. Model results indicate that sea-level rise (SLR) will change the baseline current velocity patterns inside the lagoon over the ~100-year study period, due to a strong reduction in the area of the intertidal basin. The basin infilling scenario is associated with the most important adjustments of the tidal circulation (i.e., increases in the flood velocities and delays in the ebb tide), together with an increase in the cumulative discharges of the tidal inlets. Under sea-level rise and in the basin infilling scenario, the salt marshes and tidal flats experience increases in the tidal range and current asymmetry. Basin infilling changes the sediment flushing capacity of the lagoon, leading to the attenuation of the flood dominance in the main inlet and the strengthening of the flood dominance in the two secondary inlets. The predictions resulting from these scenarios provide very useful information on the long-term evolution of similar coastal lagoons that experience varying degrees of SLR. This study highlights the need for research focusing on the quantification of the physical and socio-economic impacts of SLR on lagoon systems, thus enabling the development of effective adaptation strategies.

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Acknowledgements

This work is contribution to the EVREST project (PTDC/MAR-EST/1031/2014)A. R. Carrasco was supported by grant (SFRH/BPD/88485/2012). The authors acknowledge Duarte Duarte, José Jacob, and André Pacheco for the time series of measurements used to calibrate and validate the model. The LIDAR data were kindly provided by the Direção-Geral do Território.

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Correspondence to Ana Rita Carrasco.

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Responsible Editor: Alejandro Orfila

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Carrasco, A.R., Plomaritis, T., Reyns, J. et al. Tide circulation patterns in a coastal lagoon under sea-level rise. Ocean Dynamics 68, 1121–1139 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-018-1178-0

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Keywords

  • Sea-level rise
  • Tidal circulation
  • Basin infilling, inlets
  • Current velocities