Evaluation on surface current observing network of high frequency ground wave radars in the Gulf of Thailand
Due to the high cost of ocean observation system, the scientific design of observation network becomes much important. The current network of the high frequency radar system in the Gulf of Thailand has been studied using a three-dimensional coastal ocean model. At first, the observations from current radars have been assimilated into this coastal model and the forecast results have improved due to the data assimilation. But the results also show that further optimization of the observing network is necessary. And then, a series of experiments were carried out to assess the performance of the existing high frequency ground wave radar surface current observation system. The simulated surface current data in three regions were assimilated sequentially using an efficient ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation scheme. The experimental results showed that the coastal surface current observation system plays a positive role in improving the numerical simulation of the currents. Compared with the control experiment without assimilation, the simulation precision of surface and subsurface current had been improved after assimilated the surface currents observed at current networks. However, the improvement for three observing regions was quite different and current observing network in the Gulf of Thailand is not effective and a further optimization is required. Based on these evaluations, a manual scheme has been designed by discarding the redundant and inefficient locations and adding new stations where the performance after data assimilation is still low. For comparison, an objective scheme based on the idea of data assimilation has been obtained. Results show that all the two schemes of observing network perform better than the original network and optimal scheme-based data assimilation is much superior to the manual scheme that based on the evaluation of original observing network in the Gulf of Thailand. The distributions of the optimal network of radars could be a useful guidance for future design of observing system in this region.
KeywordsGulf of Thailand High frequency radar Observation system simulation experiment Surface current
The authors would like to thank Dr. Somkiat Khokiattiwong from PMBC for providing the near-shore water depth, monthly averaged runoff amount of rivers around the Gulf of Thailand, and surface current observations by high frequency ground wave radar and also to the two anonymous reviewers for their thorough examination and comments that were very useful for improving the manuscript.
The work is supported by the Public Science and Technology Research Funds Projects of Ocean (201505013), International Cooperation Project of Indo-Pacific Ocean Environment Variation and Air-Sea Interaction (GASI-IPOVAI-05 and GASI-03-IPOVAI-06), and NSFC-Shandong Joint Fund for Marine Science Research Centers (Grant No. U1406404).
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