Ocean Dynamics

, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 253–262 | Cite as

One-dimensional ocean model with three types of vertical velocities: a case study in the South China Sea

  • Wenfang Lu
  • Xiao-Hai Yan
  • Lu Han
  • Yuwu Jiang
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on the 8th International Workshop on Modeling the Ocean (IWMO), Bologna, Italy, 7-10 June 2016


In this research, three vertical velocities were included in a one-dimensional (1D) ocean model for a case study of the SouthEast Asian Time-Series Study station in the South China Sea. The vertical velocities consisted three processes, i.e., Ekman pumping (WEK), Eddy pumping (WEP), and the background upwelling (WBK). The quantification of WEK followed the classical Ekman pumping theory. The WEP, whose underlying mechanism was consistent with the baroclinic modes (dominated by the first mode), was quantified by Argo observation and altimetry data. The WBK, related with the background circulation, was estimated from the long-term heat budget balance. The skill assessment indicated that the case with all three processes performed best. The study confirmed the capability of the 1D model with three types of vertical velocities, which can reproduce the general structure and variation of temperature in vertical direction.


South China Sea SEATS station One-dimensional model Vertical velocity Ekman pumping 



This study was supported by grants 2013CB955704 from the National Basic Research Program and by grants U1305231, 41476005, 41476007, and 41630963 from the Natural Science Foundation of China. W. L. was supported by the China Scholarship Council during his visit to University of Delaware (No. 201406310071). We thank two anonymous reviewers for their comments that improved the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenfang Lu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Xiao-Hai Yan
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Lu Han
    • 2
  • Yuwu Jiang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science (MEL)Xiamen UniversityXiamenChina
  2. 2.Center for Remote Sensing, College of Earth, Ocean and EnvironmentUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA
  3. 3.Joint Institute for Coastal Research and Management (UD/XMU Joint-CRM)University of DelawareNewarkUSA
  4. 4.Joint Institute for Coastal Research and Management (UD/XMU Joint-CRM)Xiamen UniversityXiamenChina

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