Ocean Dynamics

, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 165–189 | Cite as

Time-domain modeling of global ocean tides generated by the full lunisolar potential

  • David EinšpigelEmail author
  • Zdeněk Martinec


Traditionally, ocean tides have been modeled in frequency domain with a forcing from selected tidal constituents. It is a natural approach; however, it implicitly neglects non-linearities of ocean dynamics. An alternative approach is time-domain modeling with a forcing given by the full lunisolar potential, i.e., all tidal waves are a priori included. This approach has been applied in several ocean tide models; however, some challenging tasks still remain, for example, assimilation of satellite altimetry data. In this paper, we introduce the assimilative scheme applicable in a time-domain model, which is an alternative to existing techniques used in assimilative ocean tide models. We present results from DEBOT, a global barotropic ocean tide model, which has two modes: DEBOT-h, a purely hydrodynamical mode, and DEBOT-a, an assimilative mode. The accuracy of DEBOT in both modes is assessed through a series of tests against tide gauge data which demonstrate that DEBOT is comparable to state-of-the-art global ocean tide models for major tidal constituents. Furthermore, as signals of all tidal frequencies are included in DEBOT, we also discuss modeling of minor tidal constituents and non-linear compound tides. Our modeling approach can be useful for those applications where the frequency domain approach is not suitable.


Ocean tides Tidal potential Time-domain modeling Global ocean models Data assimilation Minor tidal constituents 



The authors thank Michael Schindelegger for valuable discussions, Detlef Stammer and Richard Ray for providing the shelf seas and coastal tide gauge data, Libor Šachl for the buoyancy frequency dataset, and two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments and questions. This work was supported by the grant SVV260327/2016, by the European Space Agency Contract No. 4000109562/14/NL/CBi “Swarm+Oceans” under the STSE Programme as well as by The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports from the Large Infrastructures for Research, Experimental Development and Innovations project “IT4Innovations National Supercomputing Center – LM2015070”.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced StudiesDublin 2Republic of Ireland
  2. 2.Department of GeophysicsCharles UniversityPraha 8Czech Republic

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