Mine Water and the Environment

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 493–504 | Cite as

Assessment of Hydrogeochemical Processes and Mine Water Suitability for Domestic, Irrigation, and Industrial Purposes in East Bokaro Coalfield, India

  • Mukesh Kumar MahatoEmail author
  • Prasoon Kumar Singh
  • Abhay Kumar Singh
  • Ashwani Kumar Tiwari
Technical Article


Mine water samples collected from the East Bokaro coalfield were analysed to assess suitability for domestic, irrigation, and industrial purposes. The pH of the samples ranged from 6.78 to 8.11 in the pre-monsoon season, 5.89–8.51 during the monsoon season, and 6.95–8.48 in the post-monsoon season. The anion chemistry was dominated by HCO3 and SO42−, with minor amounts of Cl, NO3 and F. The Fe concentrations exceeded the maximum permissible limit of the BIS drinking water standard in about 44% of the collected samples. Turbidity, TDS, Fe, total hardness (TH), SO42−, and Mg2+ also sometimes exceeded drinking water limits. The TDS, TH and SO42− concentrations of the mine water makes it unsuitable for domestic purposes or for industrial use; high values of %Na, SAR, RSC, and Mg-hazard at certain sites restrict its suitability for agricultural use.


Mine water chemistry Solute acquisition processes Saturation index Metals Principal component analysis Quality assessment 

印度East Bokaro煤田水文地球化学过程及水质的生活、灌溉和工业适用性评价


文章取样、分析和评价了印度East Bokaro煤田水的生活、灌溉和工业用水适用性。水样pH值在季风之前为6.78-8.11,季风期间为5.89-8.51,季风之后为6.95-8.48。主要阴离子为HCO 3 - 和SO 4 2- ,次要阴离子为Cl-、NO 3 - 和F-。44%水样的Fe浓度超过BIS饮用水标准上限。浊度、TDS、Fe、总厚度、SO 4 2- 和Mg2+有时也会超过饮用水标准。矿井水的溶解总固体(TDS)、总硬度(TH)和SO 4 2- 浓度使其不适于作生活或工业用水,局部较高的%Na、SAR、RSC和Mg-hazard杝限制了其农业用水适用性

Bewertung der hydrogeochemischen Prozesse und der Verwendbarkeit des Grubenwassers im East Bokaro Kohlenrevier in Indien für die öffentlichen Wasserversorgung, zur Bewässerung und für industrielle Zwecke


Grubenwasserproben aus dem East Bokaro Kohlenrevier wurden analysiert, um die Verwendbarkeit zur öffentlichen Wasserversorgung, zur Bewässerung und für industrielle Zwecke zu beurteilen. Der pH-Wert der Proben lag vor der Monsunzeit zwischen 6,78 und 8,11, während der Monsunzeit zwischen 5,89 und 8,51 und nach der Monsunzeit zwischen 6,95 und 8,48. Die Anionenchemie mit untergeordneten Anteilen von Cl-, NO3- und F- war von HCO3- und SO4-- dominiert. Die Eisenkonzentration überschritt den maximal zulässigen Grenzwert der nationalen indischen Trinkwassernorm bei 44% der gezogenen Proben. Trübung, Filtrattrockenrückstand (TDS), Fe, Gesamthärte, SO4-- und Mg++ überschritten ebenfalls manchmal die Trinkwassergrenzwerte. Der Filtrattrockenrückstand, die Gesamthärte und die SO4-- Konzentrationen des Grubenwassers schließen eine Verwendung zur Trinkwasserversorgung und für industrielle Zwecke aus. Die hohen Werte von Natrium, des Natrium-Adsorptionswerts (SAR), des Natriumkarbonatrückstands (RSC) und das Magnesiumrisiko an einigen Stellen schränken die Verwendbarkeit für Bewässerungszwecke ein.

Relevamiento de procesos hidrogeoquímicos y aptitud del agua de mina para uso doméstico, riego y propósitos industriales en el campo de carbón East Bokaro, India


Se analizaron muestras de agua de mina colectados en el campo de carbón East Bokaro para relevar su aptitud para su uso doméstico, riego y propósitos industriales. El pH de las muestras se encontró en el rango de de 6,78-8,11 en la estación premonsónica, 5,89-8,51 en la estación monsónica y 6,95-8,48 en la estación postmonsónica. La química de aniones fue dominada por HCO3- y SO42-, con cantidades menores de Cl-, NO3- y F-. Las concentraciones de Fe superaron los límites máximos permitidos por BIS para agua de consumo en aproximadamente 44% de las muestras. La turbidez, TDS, Fe, dureza total (TH), SO42 y Mg2+ excedieron en algunos casos los límites permitidos para agua de consumo. La TDS, TH y las concentraciones de SO42- del agua de mina hacen inadecuado su uso para propósitos domésticos o para su uso industrial; altos valores de %Na, SAR, RSC y riesgo de Mg en ciertos lugares restringen su aptitud para su uso en agricultura en ciertos lugares.



The authors thank the Ministry of Human Resource Development, GoI, New Delhi (for the ISM/JRF fellowship) and the University Grants Commission (for Dr. D. S. Kothari’s post-doctoral fellowship-OT/15-16/0017) for their financial support. The analytical facility provided by the CSIR-Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad, is gratefully acknowledged. Our hearty thanks to the editors and reviewers for their insightful comments and suggestions.

Supplementary material

10230_2017_508_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (112 kb)
Supplementary material 1 Fig. 1 Gibbs’s diagrams representing the ratio of (a) Na+ + K+/(Na+ + K+ + Ca2+) and (b) Cl + NO3/(Cl + NO3 + HCO3) as a function of TDS (PDF 112 KB)
10230_2017_508_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (365 kb)
Supplementary material 2 Fig. 2 (a) Scatter plot of a Mg2+/Na+ versus Ca2+/Na+ relating carbonate and silicate end members (mM), (b) HCO3/Na+ versus Ca2+/Na+ relating carbonate and silicate end members (mM) (PDF 365 KB)
10230_2017_508_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (74 kb)
Supplementary material 3 Fig. 3. Relationship between calcite (SIC) and dolomite (SId) saturation indices (PDF 73 KB)
10230_2017_508_MOESM4_ESM.doc (39 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOC 39 KB)
10230_2017_508_MOESM5_ESM.doc (60 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (DOC 59 KB)
10230_2017_508_MOESM6_ESM.doc (280 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (DOC 279 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mukesh Kumar Mahato
    • 1
    Email author
  • Prasoon Kumar Singh
    • 2
  • Abhay Kumar Singh
    • 1
  • Ashwani Kumar Tiwari
    • 3
  1. 1.Environmental Assessment and Remediation SectionCSIR-Central Institute of Mining and Fuel ResearchDhanbadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIIT (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia
  3. 3.DIATI-Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure EngineeringPolitecnico di TorinoTurinItaly

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