Microbial Growth and Action: Implications for Passive Bioremediation of Acid Mine Drainage
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Due to the variable environmental nature of mine water, several species of bacteria are important in the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) and in bioremediation treatment technology. Enzymatic metal transport and transformation allow bacteria to survive in high-metal environments and to oxidize, reduce, and exude metals. For example, the enzymes Cr (VI) reductase and cytochrome-c3 hydrogenase allow Pseudomonas sp. to reduce Cr (VI) to less toxic Cr (III). Much more toxic organomercuric compounds are transformed by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli, using the enzymes organomercurial lyase and mercuric reductase. The role of bacteria in the AMD environment is not yet fully understood and consequently researchers should pay attention in this field.