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A preliminary review and in situ observations of the spookfish genus Harriotta (Holocephali: Rhinochimaeridae)

Abstract

The taxonomic status of two species of the spookfish genus Harriotta Goode and Bean 1895 is revised and discussed. On the basis of a literature review along with a comparison between the two species formerly considered valid, H. haeckeli Karrer 1972 is synonymized with H. raleighana Goode and Bean 1895, and Anteliochimaera chaetirhampha Tanaka 1909 previously regarded as a junior synonym of the latter is resurrected as a valid species. The revised H. raleighana is newly recorded from Japan as well as the North Pacific based on two voucher specimens collected from Hyuga-nada off Kyushu, southern Japan; the record extends the species’ known range approximately 8000 km northward from the South Pacific. In addition, secondary sexual characteristics of H. raleighana are documented for the first time, which further illuminates pronounced differences between the two species of Harriotta; H. raleighana is also revealed to have a smaller size at maturity compared with H. chaetirhampha. In the northwestern Pacific, the species show bathymetric zonation with a narrow sympatric zone at depths around 1600 m (1535–2611 m in H. raleighana vs. 906–1654 m in H. chaetirhampha). In situ behavior of these species is described and discussed from video footage.

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Acknowledgments

We are grateful to D. A. Didier (Millersville University, Millersville) for sharing her knowledge on rhinochimaerid taxonomy, S. Tanaka (Tokai University, Shizuoka) for providing valuable comments on this study, and K. Sakamoto (ZMUT) for his curatorial assistance; K. Murasaki (Tokai University, Shizuoka) kindly provided photographs of the lectotype of H. raleighana. We also thank Y. Toyoda (JAMSTEC, Yokohama) for helping us to access the high-resolution footage examined here, and G. Yearsley (Hobart) for editing the English text. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP18K14509.

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Correspondence to Naohide Nakayama.

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Nakayama, N., Matsunuma, M. & Endo, H. A preliminary review and in situ observations of the spookfish genus Harriotta (Holocephali: Rhinochimaeridae). Ichthyol Res 67, 82–91 (2020) doi:10.1007/s10228-019-00703-y

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Keywords

  • Chimaeriformes
  • Synonymy
  • Range extension
  • Secondary sexual characteristics
  • Bathymetric zonation
  • Japan