Ichthyological Research

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 370–381 | Cite as

Genetic population structure of Crystallichthys matsushimae (Cottoidei: Liparidae) with comments on color variation

  • Akira Tohkairin
  • Yoshiaki Kai
  • Yuji Ueda
  • Tomonori Hamatsu
  • Masaki Ito
  • Tetsuji Nakabo
Full Paper


Genetic divergence between two color (yellow and red) morphotypes and among regional populations of the liparid Crystallichthys matsushimae were investigated using AFLP and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variations on the partial COI and Cyt-b genes. A principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on AFLP data showed a rough separation of the yellow morphotype, distributed in the southern Sea of Japan, from the red morphotype, distributed in the Sea of Okhotsk, northern Sea of Japan and Pacific coast of northern Japan. In addition, both PCoA and the Bayesian-based individual assignment test indicated an extensive population structure among the Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk and Pacific Ocean. In contrast, the mtDNA sequence variations disclosed two haplotype groups, partly corresponding to either the two color morphotypes or the regional populations. However, gene flow restrictions were indicated between both the morphotypes and among the regional populations. Genetic divergence in the mtDNA within C. matsushimae suggested that the color morphotypes and/or regional populations were isolated by sea-level oscillations during the glacial periods. In addition, the discrepancy between the results of AFLP and mtDNA sequencing may be due to the complex history of the species, including introgressive hybridization and gene flow between regional populations as well as a sudden population expansion.


Color morphotypes Gene flow AFLP Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup 



We are very grateful to K. Matsuura, G. Shinohara and M. Nakae (NSMT), and J. K. Kim (PKU) for gifts of tissue samples. We sincerely thank K. Fujiwara (Japan Sea National Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research Agency), K. Sadayasu (Marine Fisheries Research and Development Center, Fisheries Research Agency), A. Yamasaki (Kyoto Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center), T. Noda (Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research Agency), A. Ohtake, J. Yamada, and R. Komoto (Institute of Fisheries, Akita Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center), T. Yamanaka (Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Center), T. Wada (Institution of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University), and officers and crews of T/V Tanshu-maru (Kasumi High School), and R/Vs Heian-maru (Kyoto Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center), Seiho-maru (Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Center), and Kaiyo-maru No. 5 (Kaiyo Engineering Co. LTD.) for helping in collecting specimens. We also thank G.S. Hardy for his critical reading of the manuscript. This study was supported in part by a grant-in-aid for scientific research (B) from JSPS (24370036) and the Fisheries Agency of Japan under the project ‘Assessment of Fisheries Stocks in the Waters around Japan’.

Supplementary material

10228_2015_507_MOESM1_ESM.csv (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (CSV 15 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Tohkairin
    • 1
  • Yoshiaki Kai
    • 2
  • Yuji Ueda
    • 3
  • Tomonori Hamatsu
    • 4
  • Masaki Ito
    • 5
    • 7
  • Tetsuji Nakabo
    • 6
    • 8
  1. 1.Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Maizuru Fisheries Research Station, Field Science Education and Research CenterKyoto UniversityMaizuruJapan
  3. 3.Japan Sea National Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research AgencyNiigataJapan
  4. 4.Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research AgencyKushiroJapan
  5. 5.Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research AgencyHachinoheJapan
  6. 6.The Kyoto University MuseumKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  7. 7.Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research AgencyKushiroJapan
  8. 8.Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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