Ichthyological Research

, Volume 61, Issue 3, pp 207–241 | Cite as

Taxonomic review of the genus Hypoatherina Schultz 1948 (Atheriniformes: Atherinidae)

  • Daichi Sasaki
  • Seishi Kimura
Full Paper


The marine atherinid fishes of the genus Hypoatherina Schultz 1948 (Atherinidae: Atherinomorinae) were redefined from both morphological and molecular analyses, and eight of the ten included species were redescribed. In the molecular phylogeny, four regions of mitochondrial DNA were analyzed. The results of both trees of maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses indicated the paraphyly of the former Hypoatherina. “Atherinavalenciennei and “Atherinawoodwardi, both formerly belonging to Hypoatherina, show closer relationships with Atherinomorus duodecimalis and Atherinomorus aetholepis. “Hypoatherinacelebesensis is also apart from the clade including the majority of Hypoatherina species. In contrast, H. panatela, formerly regarded as a member of the genus Stenatherina Schultz 1948, is included in the present Hypoatherina clade. The present molecular phylogeny of the genus Hypoatherina can be supported by morphology.

The genus Hypoatherina is redefined by the following combinations of characters: ascending process of premaxilla long and slender, its height more than 2.7 times the maximum width; both anterior and posterior lateral processes of premaxilla narrow and deep, the anterior process almost the same as or slightly deeper than the posterior process; premaxilla not tapering posteriorly; posterior upper margin of dentary with a prominent process; upper posterior limb of dentary with round or somewhat angular posteroventral corner; anterior preopercular ridge with a deep notch just above the corner; anus situated posterior to or slightly anterior to appressed pelvic-fin tip in adults; dorsoventral height of exposed area in the midlateral scale (third) row wide, almost equal to the maximum height of the scale, and almost the same height as scales just above or below the midlateral row. The redefined Hypoatherina includes the following ten species: H. barnesi—widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific; H. gobio (lectotype designated herein)—restricted to the Red Sea; H. golanii—restricted to the Gulf of Aqaba, inner Red Sea; H. klunzingeri—from Mozambique to eastern South Africa; H. lunata—distributed in Japan and Indonesia; H. panatela—from western and central Pacific Ocean; H. temminckii—widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific (neotype designated herein); H. tropicalis—restricted to the northeastern coast of Australia; H. tsurugae—occurring in Japan and South Korea; and H. uisila—distributed in the western and central Pacific Ocean.


Atherinidae Atherinomorinae Hypoatherina Taxonomic review Molecular phylogeny 



We are deeply indebted to J. E. McCosker (CAS), M.-A. Rogers and K. Swagel (FMNH), H. Imamura (HUMZ), K. Kishimoto (formerly IORD), G. Ogihara (KAUM), M. E. Anderson, R. Bills, and B. Konqobe (SAIAB), M. Nazarkin (ZIN), and P. Bartsch (ZMB) for their measurements and/or photographs of some type specimens, to T. Peristiwady (Indonesian Institute of Sciences), D. Golani (HUJ), K. Kishimoto, S. Oka (OCA), and K. Hoshino (Oita Marine Palace Aquarium UMITAMAGO) for donation of specimens to FRLM, to M. McGrouther (AMS), H. Motomura (KAUM), and A. Bentley (KU) for donation or loan of tissue samples for DNA analysis, to M. E. Anderson (SAIAB) for his critical comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript and his great help with the English language, and to M. J. P. Oijen (RMNH) for his valuable comments on the Bleeker specimens of Atherina temminckii. We express sincere gratitude to Y. Sakurai (Okinawa Environmental Research Co., Ltd), T. Peristiwady, Captain M. Uchida and other officers and crew of T/V Seisui-maru (Mie University), and students of FRLM for their cooperation in field collections, to K. Kuriiwa (NSMT), T. Kon (Toho University), R. O. Gotoh (Yamagata University), S. Yasui (Mie University), and T. Sado (CBM) for advice on molecular analysis, to I. Kobayashi and staff of Life Science Research Center, Center for Molecular Biology and Genetics (Mie University) for nucleotide sequences. We are most grateful to the following persons and institutions for specimen loans: M. McGrouther; J. Maclaine (BMNH); J. E. Randall (BPBM); H. Endo (BSKU); J. McCosker, D. Catania, and M. Hoang (CAS); T. Nakabo and Y. Kai (FAKU); M. Westneat, M.-A. Rogers, K. Swagel, and S. Mochel (FMNH); D. Golani; H. Kishimoto (formerly IORD); H. Motomura; H. Senou (KPM); G. Duhamel, P. Pruvost and R. Causse (MNHN); Y. Iwatsuki (MUFS); K. Matsuura and G. Shinohara (NSMT); M. Toda and K. Miyamoto (OCA); M. J. P. van Oijen and R. de Ruiter (RMNH); M. E. Anderson and R. Bills (SAIAB); M. van der Merwe, L. Hoenson, and M. Bougaardt (SAM); F. Krupp and H. Zetzsche (SMF); R. Fricke (SMNS); T. Yoshino (formerly URM); J. T. Williams, L. Palmer and S. Raredon (USNM); S. Morrison (WAM); M. Hayashi and K. Hagiwara (YCM); P. Bartsch and H. -J. Paepke (ZMB); P. K. L. Ng and K. K. P. Lim (ZRC). This study was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) awarded to S.K. by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (11640696, 14540642, 19570084, and 23570114) and by the Multilateral Cooperative Research Program (Coastal Oceanography) and Asian Core Program of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.


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Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fisheries Research LaboratoryMie UniversityShimaJapan
  2. 2.Minami-iseJapan

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