A new species of Penopus (Teleostei: Ophidiidae) from the Ryukyu Trench, the West Pacific, with remarks on Penopus microphthalmus
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The bathyal genus Penopus (Ophidiidae) is revised based on 23 specimens. One specimen from the Ryukyu Trench represents a new species, Penopus japonicus. The remaining 22 specimens were found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and neither 28 meristic and morphometric characters nor several morphological characters show any differences between the two populations. This supports Séret (1988), who considered Penopus macdonaldi Goode and Bean 1896 a junior synonym of Penopus microphthalmus (Vaillant 1888). The new Japanese species can be separated from the Atlantic species by having fewer rays in the dorsal (117 vs. 135–158) and anal (89 vs. 106–122) fins, the squamation of the head restricted to the middle part of the preopercle versus the squamation covering the dorsum, preopercle and the opercle in part, a distinct spine behind the posterior nostril versus the spine hardly visible and 9 spines on the hind margin of the preopercle versus 4–7 spines.
KeywordsOphidiidae Penopus New species Japan
The following persons kindly provided material and/or data: Karsten Hartel (MCZ), James Mcclaine (BMNH), Patrice Pruvost (MNHN), Rob Robins (UF), Gento Shinohara (NSMT), Dave Smith (USNM), Jules Soto (MOVI), Jeff Williams (USNM) and Andrew Williston (MCZ). Special thanks to Werner Schwarzhans (Hamburg) for providing the otolith illustrations, to Nikolas Ioannou (ZMUC) for taking the photographs, and to Nigel Merrett (England) for commenting on the manuscript and improving the language.
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