Ichthyological Research

, Volume 57, Issue 3, pp 286–297 | Cite as

Revision of Iquius nipponicus Jordan 1919 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the Miocene of Iki Island, Nagasaki, Japan and its phylogenetic position

  • Yoshitaka Yabumoto
  • Yoko Sakamoto
Full Paper


Iquius nipponicus Jordan 1919 was described on the basis of a single specimen from the Miocene of Iki Island, Nagasaki, Japan, and was tentatively assigned to the family Clupeidae. The holotype consists of the anterior portion of the body (lacking the anal and caudal fins and most of the caudal vertebrae), and is re-examined. The species is re-described based on additional specimens from the type locality. This species possesses an extremely stout third dorsal spine-like fin ray with a smooth posterior edge, an expanded anterior portion of the maxilla covering approximately half of the bone, 13 branched anal fin rays, and 22 abdominal and 16 caudal vertebrae. A phylogenetic study using the character matrix from a previous study suggests that the species forms a clade with xenocyprinins, but it differs from xenocyprinins in the form of the maxilla and the dentary and the numbers of branched anal fin rays and vertebrae. The present study concludes that the genus Iquius does not belong to the family Clupeidae. Iquius is a distinct and valid genus that is closely related to cultrins and xenocyprinins of the family Cyprinidae.


Iquius nipponicus Miocene Cyprinidae Japan 



We wish to express our sincere gratitude to Teruya Uyeno of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo and Toshiteru Maruo for donating the specimens to the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History. We are deeply grateful to Teruya Uyeno, Mee-mann Chang of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, and Tsutomu Miyake of the Jikei University School of Medicine for their valuable advice and critical reading of this manuscript. We would like to thank Huanzhang Liu of the Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for allowing us to examine extant specimens of cyprinids in his care and his help with the research trip in China, Jean F. DeMouthe of the California Academy of Science for her help with examining the holotype, and Masaki Miya of the Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba, for his help in obtaining literature. We are also grateful to Eric Hilton of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science and an anonymous referee who reviewed this paper and provided many comments and suggestions that helped improve the final version. This study was supported by the Fujiwara Natural History Foundation.


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Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human HistoryKitakyushuJapan
  2. 2.OnojoJapan

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