Ichthyological Research

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 1–17 | Cite as

A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with a revised classification of the Epinephelini

Full paper

Abstract

The phylogenetic relationships among the fishes in the perciform tribe Epinephelini (Serranidae) have long been poorly understood, in large part because of the numerous taxa that must be considered and the large, circumtropical distribution of the group. In this study, genetic data from two nuclear (Tmo-4C4 and histone H3) and two mitochondrial (16S and 12S) genes were gathered from 155 serranid and acanthomorph species as a means of developing a phylogenetic hypothesis using both maximum-likelihood and -parsimony criteria. The maximum-parsimony analysis recovered 675 most parsimonious trees of length 5703 steps (CI = 0.2523, HI = 0.7477, RI = 0.6582), and the maximum-likelihood analysis recovered 1 tree at −lnLikelihood = 28279.58341. These phylogenetic hypotheses are discussed in light of previous morphological evidence to evaluate the evolutionary history of the group and their implications for the currently recognized taxonomy. Our results question the monophyly of the Serranidae, as well as the genera Cephalopholis, Epinephelus, and Mycteroperca as currently defined. The Serranidae is monophyletic only with the exclusion of the genera Acanthistius and Niphon. We propose a revised classification of the tribe Epinephelini that reflects the hypothesized shared ancestry of the group and recognizes 11 genera: Alphestes, Cephalopholis, Dermatolepis, Epinephelus, Gonioplectrus, Hyporthodus (which is resurrected for 11 species of deep-bodied groupers), Mycteroperca (including 7 species heretofore allocated to Epinephelus), Plectropomus, Saloptia, Triso, and Variola.

Key words

Epinephelus Cephalopholis Mycteroperca Perciformes Molecular phylogeny 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baldwin, CC, Johnson, GD 1993Phylogeny of the Epinephelinae (Teleostei: Serranidae)Bull Mar Sci52240283Google Scholar
  2. Berg, LS 1940Classification of fishes, both recent and fossilTrav Inst Zool Acad Sci USSR587517Google Scholar
  3. Bostrom, MA, Collette, BB, Luckhurst, BE, Reece, KS, Graves, JE 2002Hybridization between two serranids, the coney (Cephalopholis fulva) and the creole-fish (Paranthias furcifer), at BermudaFish Bull100651661Google Scholar
  4. Cervigón, MF, Velasquez, E 1966Las especies del genero Mycteroperca de las costas de Venezuela (Pisces-Serranidae)Mem Soc Cienc Nat LaSalle2677143Google Scholar
  5. Colgan, DJ, McLauchlan, A, Wilson, GDF, Livingston, SP, Edgecombe, GD, Macaraenas, J, Casis, G, Gray, MR 1998Histone III and U2 snRNA DNA sequences and arthropod evolutionAust J Zool46419437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Craig, MT, Pondella, DJ,II, Hafner, JC, Franck, JPC 2001On the status of the serranid fish genus Epinephelus: evidence for paraphyly based on 16S rDNA sequencesMol Phylogenet Evol19121130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Craig, MT, Hastings, PA, Pondella, DJ,II 2004Speciation in the Central American Seaway: the importance of taxon sampling in the identification of geminate species pairsJ Biogeogr3110851091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Craig MT, Bartsch P, Wirtz P, Heemstra PC (2007) Redescription and revalidation of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) as an amphi-Atlantic grouper species (Perciformes; Serranidae). Cybium (in press)Google Scholar
  9. Dettai, A, Lecointre, G 2004In search of the notothenioid (Teleostei) relativesAntarct Sci167185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dettai, A, Lecointre, G 2005Further support for the clades obtained by multiple molecular phylogenies in the acanthomorph bushC R Biol328674689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dolphin, K, Belshaw, R, Orme, CDL, Quicke, DLJ 2000Noise and incongruence: interpreting results of the incongruence length difference testMol Phylogenet Evol17401406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Forey, PL, Humphries, CJ, Kitching, IL, Scotland, RW, Siebert, DJ, Williams, DM 1992Cladistics: a practical course in systematicsClarendon PressOxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. Gosline, WA 1966The limits of the fish family Serranidae, with notes on other lower percoidsProc Calif Acad Sci3391111Google Scholar
  14. Greenwood, PH 1977A review of the family Centropomidae (Pisces, Perciformes): an appendixBull Br Mus (Nat Hist) Zool31297301Google Scholar
  15. Greenwood, PH, Rosen, DE, Weitzman, SH, Myers, GE 1966Phyletic studies of teleostean fishes, with a provisional classification of living formsBull Am Mus Nat Hist131339455Google Scholar
  16. Heemstra, PC 1991A taxonomic revision of the eastern Atlantic groupers (Pisces: Serranidae)Bol Mus Munic Funchal43571Google Scholar
  17. Heemstra PC, Heemstra E (2004) Coastal fishes of southern Africa. South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity and National Inquiry Service Centre, Grahamstown, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  18. Heemstra, PC, Randall, JE 1986

    Serranidae

    Smith, MMHeemstra, PC eds. Smith's sea fishesMacmillan South AfricaJohannesburg
    Google Scholar
  19. Heemstra PC, Randall JE (1993) Groupers of the world. FAO Fisheries synopsis no. 125, vol 16. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  20. Imamura, H, Yabe, M 2002Demise of the Scopaeniformes (Actinoperygii: Percomorpha): an alternative phylogenetic hypothesisBull Fac Fish Hokkaido Univ53107128Google Scholar
  21. Johnson, GD 1983Niphon spinosus: a primitive epinepheline serranid, with comments on the monophyly and intrarelationships of the SerranidaeCopeia1983777787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson, GD 1988Niphon spinosus, a primitive epinepheline serranid: corroborative evidence from the larvaeJpn J Ichthyol35718Google Scholar
  23. Johnson, GD, Keener, P 1984Aid to identification of American grouper larvaeBull Mar Sci34106134Google Scholar
  24. Jordan, DS 1908The law of geminate speciesAm Nat427380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jordan, DS 1923A classification of fishes including families and genera as far as knownStanford Univ Publ Univ Ser Biol Sci277243Google Scholar
  26. Jordan, DS, Eigenmann, CH 1890A review of the genera and species of Serranidae found in the waters of America and EuropeBull US Fish ComVIII329441Google Scholar
  27. Katayama, M 1959Studies on the serranid fishes of Japan (1)Bull Fac Educ Yamaguchi Univ8103180Google Scholar
  28. Katayama, M 1974Serranid fishes of the Okinawa Islands (II)Bull Fac Educ Yamaguchi Univ2499112Google Scholar
  29. Kendall, AW,Jr 1976Predorsal and associated bones in serranid and grammistid fishesBull Mar Sci26585592Google Scholar
  30. Kendall, AW,Jr 1979Morphological comparisons of North American seabass larvae (Pisces: Serranidae:)NOAA Tech Rep Circ428150Google Scholar
  31. Kendall, AW,Jr 1984

    Serranidae: development and relationships

    Moser, HGRichards, WJCohen, DMFahay, MPKendall, AW,JrRichardson, SL eds. Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. Special publication 1American Society of Ichthyologists and HerpetologistsLawrence, KS499510
    Google Scholar
  32. Kendall, AW,Jr, Fahay, MP 1979Larvae of the serranid fish Gonioplectrus hispanus with comments on its relationshipsBull Mar Sci29117121Google Scholar
  33. Leis, JM 1986Larval development in four species of Indo-Pacific coral trout Plectropomus (Pisces, Serranidae: Epinephelinae) with an analysis of relationships of the genusBull Mar Sci38525552Google Scholar
  34. Leviton, AE, Gibbs, RH,Jr, Heal, E, Dawson, CE 1985Standards in herpetology and ichthyology. Part I. Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ichthyologyCopeia1985802832Google Scholar
  35. Maddison DR, Maddison WP (1997) MacClade V. 4.06. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MAGoogle Scholar
  36. Maggio, T, Andaloro, F, Hemida, F, Arculeo, M 2005A molecular analysis of some eastern Atlantic grouper from the Epinephelus and Mycteroperca genusJ Exp Mar Biol Ecol3218392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McCully HH (1961) The comparative anatomy of the scales of serranid fishes. PhD dissertation. Stanford University, Palo Alto, CAGoogle Scholar
  38. Meisler, MR 1987Limits and relationships of serranine seabasses, with revisions of Serranus and Mentiperca (Pisces: Serranidae). PhD dissertationUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesGoogle Scholar
  39. Nelson, JS 1994Fishes of the world3rd ednWileyNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Nixon, KC 1999The parsimony ratchet, a new method for rapid parsimony analysisCladistics15407414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Norman, JR 1966A draft synopsis of the orders, families and genera of recent fishes and fish-like vertebratesBritish Museum (Natural History)LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Oshima, Y, Shiomi, K, Hashimoto, Y 1974Comparison of grammistin from four species of grammistid fishesBull Jpn Soc Sci Fish40223230Google Scholar
  43. Otero, O 2005Anatomy, systematics and phylogeny of both recent and fossil latid fishes (Teleostei, Perciformes, Latidae)Zool J Linn Soc14181133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Palumbi, S 1996

    Nucleic acids II: The polymerase chain reaction

    Hillis, DMMoritz, CMaple, BK eds. Molecular systematicsSinauerSunderland205248
    Google Scholar
  45. Posada, D, Crandall, KA 1998Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitutionBioinformatics14817818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Randall, JE 1964Notes on the groupers of Tahiti, with description of a new serranid fish genusPac Sci18281296Google Scholar
  47. Randall, JE, Aida, K, Hibiya, T, Mitsuura, N, Kamiya, H, Hashimoto, Y 1971Grammistin, the skin toxin of soapfishes and its significance in the classification of the GrammistidaePubl Seto Mar Biol Lab19157190Google Scholar
  48. Rosen, DR 1979Fishes from the uplands and intermontane basins of Guatemala: revisionary studies and comparative geographyBull Am Mus Nat Hist162269375Google Scholar
  49. Rosenblatt, RH, Zahuranec, BJ 1967The Eastern Pacific groupers of the genus Mycteroperca, including a new speciesCal Fish Game53228245Google Scholar
  50. Shiomi, K, Igarashi, T, Yokota, H, Nagashima, Y, Ishida, M 2000Isolation and structures of grammistins, peptide toxins from the skin secretion of the soapfish Grammistes sexlineatusToxicon3891103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sibley, CG 1957The evolutionary and taxonomic significance of sexual dimorphism and hybridization of birdsCondor59161191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sikes, DS, Lewis, PO 2001Beta software, V. 1. PAUPRat: PAUP* implementation of the parsimony ratchetDept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of ConnecticutStorrs, CTGoogle Scholar
  53. Smith, CL 1954Four rare serraniform fishes from east AfricaAnn Mag Nat Hist (Ser 12)7925933Google Scholar
  54. Smith, CL 1966Menephorus Poey, a serranid genus based on two hybrids of Cephalopholis fulva and Paranthias furcifer, with comments on the systematic placement of ParanthiasAm Mus Novit2276111Google Scholar
  55. Smith, CL 1971A revision of the American groupers: Epinephelus and allied generaBull Am Mus Nat Hist1461241Google Scholar
  56. Smith, WL, Wheeler, WC 2004Polyphyly of the mail-cheeked fishes (Teleostei: Scorpaeniformes): evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear sequence dataMol Phylogenet Evol32627646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith-Vaniz, WF, Johnson, GD, Randall, JE 1988Redescription of Gracila albomarginata (Fowler and Bean) and Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker) with comments on the generic limits of selected Indo-Pacific groupers (Pisces: Serranidae: Epinephelinae)Proc Acad Nat Sci Phila140123Google Scholar
  58. Streelman, JT, Karl, SA 1997Reconstructing labroid evolution with single-copy nuclear DNAProc R Soc Lond26410111020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sugiyama, N, Araki, M, Ishida, M, Nagashima, Y, Shiomi, K 2005Further isolation and characterization of grammistins from the skin secretion of the soapfish Grammistes sexlineatusToxicon45595601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Thompson, JD, Gibson, TJ, Plewniak, F, Jeanmougin, F, Higgins, DG 1997The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis toolsNucleic Acids Res2548764882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vos, RA 2003Accelerated likelihood surface exploration: the likelihood ratchetSyst Biol52368373PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marine Biology Research DivisionScripps Institution of OceanographyLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations