Advertisement

European Journal of Psychology of Education

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 301–314 | Cite as

Depersonalization or cynicism, efficacy or inefficacy: what are the dimensions of teacher burnout?

  • Silvia Simbula
  • Dina Guglielmi
Article

Abstract

This article seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the dimensionality of the burnout syndrome. Specifically, its aims are: (1) to investigate the role of efficacy beliefs using negatively worded inefficacy items instead of positive ones and (2) to establish whether depersonalization and cynicism can be considered two different dimensions of the teacher burnout syndrome. The results show that, compared with efficacy beliefs, inefficacy beliefs relate more strongly to the other burnout dimensions considered by the study (i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and cynicism). Moreover, using partial disaggregation method, a better fit is found for the four-factor model with separate depersonalization and cynicism dimensions than for the three-factor model in which depersonalization and cynicism are collapsed into one factor. The article concludes that future research on teacher burnout should: (1) use the inefficacy scale as the “third dimension” of burnout, rather than the efficacy scale, and (2) include the cynicism and depersonalization constructs.

Keywords

Cynicism Depersonalization Inefficacy MBI-ES Teacher burnout 

Résumé

Cet article vise à contribuer au débat actuel à propos des dimensions constituant le syndrome d'épuisement professionnel (burnout). Plus en détail les buts sont: (1) analyser le rôle des croyances d'efficacité par une échelle mesurant les croyances d'inefficacité (composée d'items formulés de manière négative, au lieu de positive); (2) vérifier si on peut considérer Dépersonnalisation et Cynisme comme deux dimensions différentes du syndrome de burnout des professeurs. Nos résultats ont montré que les croyances d'inefficacité sont plus fortement associées aux dimensions du burnout (Dépersonnalisation, Cynisme, Épuisement emotionnel) que les croyances d'efficacité. De plus, des analyses de équations structurelles (méthode de désagrégation partielle) ont montré que le modèle à quatre facteurs avec les deux dimensions de Dépersonnalisation et Cynisme séparées a un meilleur ajustement par rapport au modèle à trois facteurs, dans lequel Dépersonnalisation et Cynisme ont été effondrés dans un seul facteur. On peut conclure que dans les recherches futures sur le burnout des professeurs il serait mieux: (1) d'utiliser une échelle d'inefficacité comme “troisième dimension” du burnout, plutôt qu'une échelle d'efficacité; (2) d'inclure les dimensions Cynisme et Dépersonnalisation.

Notes

References

  1. Abraham, R. (2000). Organizational cynicism: Bases and consequences. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 126, 269–292.Google Scholar
  2. Aluja, A., Blanch, A., & Garcia, L. F. (2005). Dimensionality of the Maslach Burnout Inventory in school teachers: A study of several proposal. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 21, 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arbuckle, J. L. (2003). Amos users'guide (version 5.0). Chicago: Smallwaters.Google Scholar
  4. Bagozzi, R. P., & Heatherton, T. F. (1994). A general approach to representing multifaceted personality constructs: Application to state self-esteem. Structural Equation Modeling, 1, 35–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bentler, P. M. (1989). EQS structural equations program manual. Los Angeles: BMDP Statistical Software.Google Scholar
  6. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bommer, W. H., Rich, G. A., & Rubin, R. S. (2005). Changing attitudes about change: Longitudinal effects of transformational leader behavior on employee cynicism about organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 733–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borgogni, L., Galati, D., Petitta, L., & Centro Formazione Schweitzer. (2005). Il questionario checkup organizzativo. Manuale dell'adattamento Italiano. Firenze: O.S. Organizzazioni Speciali.Google Scholar
  10. Bouman, A., Te Brake, H., & Hoogstraten, J. (2002). Significant effects due to rephrasing the MBI's PA items. Psychological Reports, 91, 825–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bresó, E., Salanova, M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2007). In search of the “third dimension” of burnout: Efficacy or inefficacy? Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56, 460–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Byrne, B. M. (1999). The nomological network of teacher burnout: A literature review and empirically validated model. In R. Vandenberghe & M. Huberman (Eds.), Understanding and preventing teacher burnout (pp. 15–37). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaplain, R. P. (2008). Stress and psychological distress among trainee secondary teachers in England. Educational Psychology, 28, 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). General affective dispositions in physical and psychological health. In C. B. Snyder & D. R. Forsyth (Eds.), Handbook of social and clinical psychology: The health perspective (pp. 221–245). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Compton, W. C. (2005). An introduction to positive psychology. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  17. Cox, T., Tisserand, M., & Toon, T. (2005). The conceptualization and measurement of burnout: Questions and directions. Work and Stress, 19, 187–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dabholkar, P. A., Thorpe, D. I., & Rentz, J. O. (1996). A measure of service quality for retail stores: Scale development and validation. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 24, 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diener, E., & Emmons, R. A. (1984). The independence of positive and negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1105–1117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Falvo, R., Trifiletti, E., Andrighetto, L., & Capozza, D. (2006). Organizational commitment, commitment to change and burnout. TPM—Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 13, 225–236.Google Scholar
  21. Fons, N., van Iterson, A., & Robert, R. (2007). Value incongruence, job autonomy, and organization-based self-esteem: A self-based perspective on organization cynicism. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16, 195–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garden, A. M. (1987). Depersonalization: A valid dimension of burnout? Human Relations, 140, 545–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Green, D. E., Walkey, F. H., & Taylor, A. J. W. (1991). The three factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 453–472.Google Scholar
  24. Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 495–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Demerouti, E. (2005). The construct validity of an alternative measure of burnout: Investigating the English translation of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Work and Stress, 19, 208–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Iwanicki, E. F., & Schwab, R. L. (1981). A cross validation study of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 41, 1167–1174.Google Scholar
  28. Johnson, J., & O'Leary-Kelly, A. (2003). The effects of psychological contract breach and organizational cynicism: Not all social exchange violations are created equal. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 627–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1986). LISREL user guide version VI (4th ed.). Mooresville: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  30. Kalimo, R., & Hakanen, J. (2000). Työuupumus [Work and health in Finland: Burnout]. In S. Virtanen (Ed.), Työja terveys Suomessa v. 2000 (pp. 119–126). Helsinki: Työ terveyslaitos.Google Scholar
  31. Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (1988). The impact of interpersonal environment on burnout and organizational commitment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 9, 287–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lorente, L., Salanova, M., Martinez, I., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Extension of the Job Demands Resources model in the prediction of burnout and engagement among teachers over time. Psycothema, 20, 354–360.Google Scholar
  34. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). Maslach burnout inventory manual (research edition). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  35. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996a). Maslach burnout inventory manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press.Google Scholar
  36. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Schwab, R. L. (1996b). Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES). In C. Maslach, S. E. Jackson, & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), MBI manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press.Google Scholar
  37. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maslach, C., Leiter, M. P., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Measuring burnout. In C. L. Cooper & S. Cartwright (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of organizational well-being (pp. 86–108). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Montgomery, C., & Rupp, A. A. (2005). Meta-analysis for exploring the diverse causes and effects of stress in teachers. Canadian Journal of Education, 28, 458–486.Google Scholar
  40. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  41. Salanova, M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2000). Exposure to information technologies and its relation to burnout. Behaviour and Information Technology, 19, 385–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Salanova, M., Bresó, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2005a). Hacia un modelo espiral de las creencias de efficacia en el estudio del burnout y del engagement [Toward a spiral model of efficacy beliefs in the study of burnout and engagement]. Estress y Ansiedad, 11, 215–231.Google Scholar
  43. Salanova, M., Llorens, S., Garcia-Renedo, M., Burriel, R., Bresó, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2005b). Toward a four-dimensional model of burnout: A multigroup factor-analytic study including depersonalization and cynicism. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65, 901–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schaufeli, W. B., & Buunk, B. P. (2003). Burnout: An overview of 25 years of research and theorizing. In M. J. Schabracq, J. A. M. Winnubst, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Handbook of work and health psychology (pp. 383–425). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Schaufeli, W. B., & Enzmann, D. (1998). The burnout companion to study and practice: A critical analysis. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  46. Schaufeli, W. B., & Salanova, M. (2007). Efficacy or inefficacy, that's the question: Burnout and work engagement, and their relationships with efficacy beliefs. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 20, 177–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schaufeli, W. B., Daamen, J., & Van Mierlo, H. (1994). Burnout among Dutch teachers: An MBI-validity study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 803–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). In C. Maslach, S. E. Jackson, & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), MBI manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press.Google Scholar
  49. Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzáles-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schutte, N., Toppinnen, S., Kalimo, R., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2000). The factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey across occupational groups and nations. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73, 53–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sirigatti, S., & Stefanile, C. (1993). The Maslach Burnout Inventory: adattamento e taratura per l'Italia. Firenze: O.S. Organizzazioni Speciali.Google Scholar
  52. Smiley, M. A. (1999). Teacher stress in a time of reform. In R. Vandenberghe & M. Huberman (Eds.), Understanding and preventing teacher burnout (pp. 59–84). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Steiger, J. H. (1989). EzPATH: A supplementary module for SYSTAT and SYGRAPH. Evanston: SYSTAT.Google Scholar
  54. Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Worley, J. A., Vassar, M., Wheeler, D. L., & Barnes, L. L. B. (2008). Factor structure of scores from the Maslach Burnout Inventory: A review and meta-analysis of 45 exploratory and confirmatory factor-analytic studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68, 797–823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zurlo, M. C., Pes, D., & Cooper, C. L. (2007). Stress in teaching: A study of occupational stress and its determinants among Italian schoolteachers. Stress and Health, 23, 231–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa, Portugal and Springer Science + Business Media BV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations