Computer-manipulated stimuli as a research tool in Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus
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Multimodal communication is essential in social interactions in cichlid fish, including conspecifics’ recognition, agonistic interactions and courtship behaviour. Computer-manipulated image stimuli and sound playback offer powerful tools to assess the relative relevance of visual and acoustic stimuli in fish behavioural studies, but these techniques require validation for each taxon. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus responds to computer-manipulated visual stimuli and acoustic playback. Six experiments were conducted: computer animation playback, video playback, interaction with a mirror, presentation of a live male in a jar alone and combined with courting sound playback or with white noise playback. Individual agonistic interactions (lateral displays, up and down swimming, butting) and courting behaviours (tilting leading, digging) were tallied for each experiment. Our results suggest that non-interactive computer-manipulated visual stimuli is not a suitable tool in behavioural research with Mozambique tilapia. In contrast, interaction with a live male in a jar seems to remain the best visual research instrument inducing significant strong behavioural responses. Although none or only a few agonistic interactions were observed towards video playbacks or computer animations, such interactions significantly increased towards a male in jar and were modulated by courtship sound playback, suggesting the additional relevance of sound playback as a tool in behavioural research with Mozambique tilapia, including the study of multimodal signalling.
KeywordsPlayback experiments Visual stimuli Acoustic signals Agonistic interactions Courtship behaviour
Authors sincerely thank O. Slavik for valuable input during manuscript preparation and Daniel Alves for help during the preparation of the playback experiments.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was funded by the Science and Technology Foundation, Portugal, pluriannual program UI&D 331/94 and UI&D 329, and the strategic projects UID/MAR/04292/2013 and UID/BIA/00329/2013 granted to MARE and to cE3c, respectively.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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