Advertisement

acta ethologica

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 9–19 | Cite as

Resource defence and dominance hierarchy in the boto (Inia geoffrensis) during a provisioning program

  • Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves
  • Artur Andriolo
  • Mark Bryan Orams
  • Alexandre de Freitas Azevedo
Original Paper

Abstract

Aggression is often utilised in intraspecific competition to establish and maintain dominance hierarchies in social mammals. Here, we determine if aggressiveness in conditioned botos (Inia geoffrensis) during interactions with humans under provisioning is influenced by the presence or absence of food rewards and if provisioning leads to the establishment of a dominance hierarchy among these generally solitary animals. Mean values of bites among the botos for sessions in which food rewards were delivered were significantly higher than sessions in which no food reward was delivered. No significant difference exists between the mean number of bites per individual during feeding sessions, but the mean number of bites increased significantly with time when animals were not fed. Supplant behaviours were used as a non-harming alternative to bites. The botos’ provisioning is a case of instrumental conditioning, in which the conditioned botos expect to receive food from tourists, increasing competition among the animals when they are not fed. The provisioned botos exhibited an almost linear dominance hierarchy. Bites and supplant behaviours were used more frequently by dominant botos to prevent subordinates from obtaining food provisions. Interactions brought about by provisioning are likely to be harmful to the botos and potentially dangerous to humans.

Keywords

Amazon River dolphin Artificial feeding Central Amazon Anavilhanas National Park Agonistic behaviour 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Meio Ambiente from the Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro for the important support provided, Duke University/Oak Foundation for sponsoring this research, Cetacean Society International and Instituto Aqualie. The authors would also like to thank ICMBio staff from the Anavilhanas National Park, Marilda Medeiros and all the Restaurante Boto Cor-de-Rosa’s staff, David Janiger, Robson Carvalho, Fernanda Romagnoli, Mario Angelo Sartori, American Journal Experts and the anonymous reviewers of this journal. L.C.P.S. Alves is supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES).

References

  1. Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alves LCPS, Andriolo A, Orams MB, Azevedo AF (2011) The growth of “botos feeding tourism”, a new tourism industry based on the boto (Amazon River dolphin) Inia geoffrensis in the Amazonas State, Brazil. Sitientibus Ser Ci Biol 11(1):8–15Google Scholar
  3. Barroso FG, Alados CL, Boza J (2000) Social hierarchy in the domestic goat: effect on food habits and production. Appl Anim Behav Sci 69:35–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barton RA (1993) Sociospatial mechanisms of feeding competition in female olive baboons, Papio anubis. Anim Behav 46(4):791–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Best RC, da Silva VMF (1989) Amazon River dolphin, boto, Inia geoffrensis (de Blainville, 1817). In: Ridgway SH, Harrison RJ (eds) Handbook of marine mammals. Academic, London, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  6. Best RC, da Silva VMF (1993) Inia geoffrensis. Mamm Species 426:1–8Google Scholar
  7. Croft DB (1980) Behaviour of red kangaroos, Macropus rufus (Desmarest, 1822) (Macropodidae; Marsupialia) in northwestern New South Wales, Australia. Aust Mammal 4:5–58Google Scholar
  8. Delahay RJ, Walker NJ, Forrester GJ, Harmsen B, Riordan P, MacDonald DW, Newman C, Cheeseman CL (2006) Demographic correlates of bite wounding in Eurasian badgers, Meles meles L., in stable and perturbed populations. Anim Behav 71:1047–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eden SF (1987) Dispersal and competitive ability in the magpie: an experimental study. Anim Behav 35(3):764–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fisler GF (1977) Interspecific hierarchy at an artificial food source. Anim Behav 25:240–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forman DW, Brain PF (2006) Agonistic behaviour and bite wound patterns in wild water voles (Arvicola terrestris L.). Aggressive Behav 32:599–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gil-Burmann C, Peláez F, Sánchez S (1998) Variations in competitive mechanisms of captive male hamadryas-like baboons in two feeding situations. Primates 39(4):473–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gravena W (2007) Isolamento e caracterização de marcadores microssatélites para análises de parentesco no boto-vermelho (Inia geoffrensis). Masters thesis, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia and Universidade Federal da Amazônia.Google Scholar
  14. Holmes RT (1966) Breeding ecology and annual cycle adaptations of the red-backed sandpiper (Calidris alpina) in northern Alaska. Condor 68(1):3–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jones E, Byrne B, Chance MRA (1982) Influence of a novel male on the social behaviour of a captive group of mature female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Lab Anim 16:208–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Layne JN, Caldwell DK (1964) Behavior of the Amazon dolphin, Inia geoffrensis (Blainville), in captivity. Zoologica 49:81–108Google Scholar
  17. Lee PC, Oliver JI (1979) Competition, dominance and the acquisition of rank in juvenile yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Anim Behav 27:576–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lehner PN (1996) Handbook of ethological methods, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  19. Litvin Y, Blanchard DC, Pentkowski NS, Blanchard RJ (2007) A pinch or a lesion: a reconceptualization of biting consequences in mice. Aggressive Behav 33:545–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. MacDonald DW, Harmsen BJ, Johnson PJ, Newman C (2004) Increasing frequency of bite wounds indicates social tension as population density increases amongst Eurasian badgers, Meles meles. Anim Behav 67:745–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Martin P, Bateson P (1993) Measuring behaviour: an introductory guide, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Martin AR, da Silva VMF (2006) Sexual dimorphism and body scarring in the boto (Amazon River dolphin) Inia geoffrensis. Mar Mam Sci 22(1):25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Maynard-Smith J, Parker GA (1973) The logic of animal conflict. Nature 246:15–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Orams MB (1996) A conceptual model of tourist–wildlife interaction: the case for education as a management strategy. Aust Geogr 27(1):39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Orams MB (2002) Feeding wildlife as a tourism attraction: issues and impacts. Tourism Manage 23(3):281–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Orams MB, Hill GJE, Baglioni AJ (1996) “Pushy” behaviour in a wild dolphin feeding program at Tangalooma, Australia. Mar Mam Sci 12(1):107–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Orihuela A, Galina CS (1997) Social order measured in pasture and pen conditions and its relationship to sexual behavior in Brahman (Bos indicus) cows. Appl Anim Behav Sci 52:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Prakash M, Diwan AP, Srivastava S, Singhal V (1994) Recent advances in animal behaviour. Anmol Publications PVT LTD, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  29. Price EO (2002) Animal domestication and behaviour. CAB International, WallingfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pryor K (1973) Behavior and learning in porpoises and whales. Naturwissenschaften 60(9):412–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Queiroz SA, Cromberg VU (2006) Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp. Braz J Poultry Sci 8(1):01–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Samuels A, Bejder L (2004) Chronic interaction between humans and free-ranging bottlenose dolphins near Panama City Beach, Florida, USA. J Cetacean Res Manag 6(1):69–77Google Scholar
  33. Samuels A, Gifford T (1997) A quantitative assessment of dominant relations among bottlenose dolphins. Mar Mam Sci 13(1):70–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Samuels A, Spradlin TR (1995) Quantitative behavioral study of bottlenose dolphins in swim-with-dolphin programs in the United States. Mar Mam Sci 11(4):520–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Samuels A, Bejder L, Heinrich S (2000) A review of the literature pertaining to swimming with wild dolphins. Report to the Marine Mammal Commission, Silver Spring, MD.Google Scholar
  36. Scheer M (2010) Review of self initiated behaviors of free-ranging cetaceans directed towards human swimmers and wader during open water encounters. Interact Stud 11(3):442–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Scott J, Lockard JS (1999) Female dominance relationships among captive western lowland gorillas: comparisons with the wild. Behaviour 136:1283–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Skinner BF (1938) The behavior of organisms: an experimental analysis. Skinner Foundation, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  39. Smith H, Samuels A, Bradley S (2008) Reducing risky interactions between free-ranging dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in an artificial feeding program at Monkey Mia, Western Australia. Tourism Manage 29:994–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Staddon JER, Ettinger RH (1989) Learning. An introduction to the principles of adaptive behavior. Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego.Google Scholar
  41. Sweeney JC (1990) Marine mammal behavioral diagnostics. In: Dierauf LA (ed) Handbook of marine mammal medicine: health, disease and rehabilitation. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 53–72Google Scholar
  42. Webster MS, Hixon MA (2000) Mechanisms and individual consequences of intraspecific competition in a coral-reef fish. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 196:187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wirtu G, Pope CE, Vaccaro J, Sarrat E, Cole A, Godke RA, Dresser BL (2004) Dominance hierarchy in a herd of female eland antelope (Taurotragus oryx) in captivity. Zoo Biol 23:323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag and ISPA 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Artur Andriolo
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mark Bryan Orams
    • 4
  • Alexandre de Freitas Azevedo
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-graduação em Meio AmbienteUniversidade do Estado do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto AqualieRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Campus UniversitárioJuiz de ForaBrazil
  4. 4.New Zealand Tourism Research Institute, School of Hospitality and TourismAUT UniversityAucklandNew Zealand
  5. 5.Laboratório de Mamíferos Aquáticos e Bioindicadores, Faculdade de OceanografiaUniversidade do Estado do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations