Advertisement

Accessibility analysis of higher education institution websites of Portugal

  • Abid Ismail
  • K. S. KuppusamyEmail author
  • Sara Paiva
Communication
  • 63 Downloads

Abstract

The higher education institutions across the globe are steadily increasing their usage of the web platforms to disseminate information to its stakeholders. In this background, it becomes important to make these resources inclusive. An inclusive website of a higher education institution will facilitate seamless access to its resources for Persons with Disabilities (PwDs). This paper presents an accessibility analysis of 59 higher education websites of Portugal. Both Polytechnic (19) and University (40) websites were incorporated into the study. The accessibility analysis is carried out with three major tools: AChecker, WAVE, and aXe. With respect to the AChecker tool, the average of known problems was observed almost doubled in Universities than Polytechnic Institution websites of Portugal under all levels of conformance. With respect to WAVE tool, we found that the average of alerts, structural elements, and HTML5 & ARIA in terms of web accessibility status of websites of Polytechnic Institutes are less than the Universities, but contrast errors are found with more frequency in Polytechnic Institutes than in universities, and the average of errors and features are almost the same in both of the cases. Also, we found that the average number of violations and needs of review guidelines as per aXe tool are 50.84 and 21.47 in Polytechnic Institutes’ websites and 30.75 and 27.83 in Universities websites belonging to Portugal, respectively. Based on scores obtained by these accessibility analysis tools, the outliers of accessibility violations are calculated with respect to websites of Polytechnic Institutes and Universities of Portugal. Moreover, we also suggested and discussed the important clues to solve the accessibility violations of websites along with their issue descriptions among the selected websites in this study. Hence, this analysis report provides the feedback to website administrator and web developers to improve the accessibility evaluation status of these websites.

Keywords

Web accessibility Web evaluation tools Accessibility issues Accessible guidelines Portugal institutes and universities websites World wide web consortium (W3C) Statistical inferences 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Aizpurua, A., Arrue, M., Vigo, M., Abascal, J.: Validating the effectiveness of evalaccess when deploying wcag 2.0 tests. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 10(4), 425–441 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Faries, A., Al-Khalifa, H.S., Al-Razgan, M.S., Al-Duwais, M.: Evaluating the accessibility and usability of top saudi e-government services. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, pp. 60–63. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alahmadi, T., Drew, S., et al.: Accessibility evaluation of top-ranking university websites in world, oceania, and arab categories for home, admission, and course description webpages. J. Open Flex. Distance Learn. 21(1), 7 (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barua, M.: E-governance adoption in government organization of india. Int. J. Manag. Public Sector Inf. Commun. Technol. 3(1), 1 (2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fogli, D., Colosio, S., Sacco, M.: Managing accessibility in local e-government websites through end-user development: a case study. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 9(1), 35–50 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fuglerud, K.S., Røssvoll, T.H.: An evaluation of web-based voting usability and accessibility. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 11(4), 359–373 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Garrido, A., Rossi, G., Medina, N.M., Grigera, J., Firmenich, S.: Improving accessibility of web interfaces: refactoring to the rescue. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 13(4), 387–399 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gonçalves, R., Rocha, T., Martins, J., Branco, F., Au-Yong-Oliveira, M.: Evaluation of e-commerce websites accessibility and usability: an e-commerce platform analysis with the inclusion of blind users. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 17, 1–17 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goodwin, M., Susar, D., Nietzio, A., Snaprud, M., Jensen, C.S.: Global web accessibility analysis of national government portals and ministry websites. J. Inf. Technol. Polit. 8(1), 41–67 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ismail, A., Kuppusamy, K.S.: Accessibility analysis of north eastern india region websites for persons with disabilities. In: 2016 International Conference on Accessibility to Digital World (ICADW), pp. 145–148. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ismail, A., Kuppusamy, K.S.: Accessibility of Indian universities’ homepages: an exploratory study. J. King Saud Univ. Comput. Inf. Sci. 30, 268–278 (2018)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ismail, A., Kuppusamy, K.S., Kumar, A., Ojha, P.K.: Connect the dots: accessibility, readability and site ranking-an investigation with reference to top ranked websites of government of India. J. King Saud Univ. Comput. Inf. Sci (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksuci.2017.05.007
  13. 13.
    Ismail, A., Kuppusamy, K.S., Nengroo, A.S.: Multi-tool accessibility assessment of government department websites: a case-study with jkgad. Disabil. Rehabilit. Assist. Technol. 13, 1–13 (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ismailova, R., Inal, Y.: website accessibility and quality in use: a comparative study of government websites in kyrgyzstan, azerbaijan, kazakhstan and turkey. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 16(4), 987–996 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kamal, I.W., Wahsheh, H.A., Alsmadi, I.M., Al-Kabi, M.N.: Evaluating web accessibility metrics for Jordanian universities. Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl. 7(7), 113–122 (2016)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karaim, N.A., Inal, Y.: Usability and accessibility evaluation of Libyan government websites. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 18, 207–216 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kožuh, I., Hintermair, M., Holzinger, A., Volčič, Z., Debevc, M.: Enhancing universal access: deaf and hard of hearing people on social networking sites. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 14(4), 537–545 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kurt, S.: The accessibility of university websites: the case of turkish universities. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 10(1), 101–110 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Leitner, M.L., Strauss, C., Stummer, C.: Web accessibility implementation in private sector organizations: motivations and business impact. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 15(2), 249–260 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Manoharan, A.: Active Citizen Participation in E-Government: A Global Perspective: A Global Perspective. IGI Global, Hershey (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rau, P.L.P., Zhou, L., Sun, N., Zhong, R.: Evaluation of web accessibility in china: changes from 2009 to 2013. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 15(2), 297–303 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rello, L., Baeza-Yates, R.: How to present more readable text for people with dyslexia. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 16(1), 29–49 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Roig-Vila, R., Ferrández, S., Ferri-Miralles, I.: Assessment of web content accessibility levels in spanish official online education environments. Int. Educ. Stud. 7(6), 31–45 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Velleman, E.M., Nahuis, I., van der Geest, T.: Factors explaining adoption and implementation processes for web accessibility standards within egovernment systems and organizations. Univers. Access Inf. Soc. 16(1), 173–190 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    WRD: world report on disability. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_report_on_disability (2017)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science, School of Engineering and TechnologyPondicherry UniversityPuducherryIndia
  2. 2.Applied Research Centre for Digital Transformation (ARC4DigiT)Instituto Politécnico de Viana do CasteloViana do CasteloPortugal

Personalised recommendations