Advertisement

Universal Access in the Information Society

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 239–248 | Cite as

Accessible privacy and security: a universally usable human-interaction proof tool

  • Graig SauerEmail author
  • Jonathan Holman
  • Jonathan Lazar
  • Harry Hochheiser
  • Jinjuan Feng
Long Paper

Abstract

Despite growing interest in designing usable systems for managing privacy and security, recent efforts have generally failed to address the needs of users with disabilities. As security and privacy tools often rely upon subtle visual cues or other potentially inaccessible indicators, users with perceptual limitations might find such tools particularly challenging. To understand the needs of an important group of users with disabilities, a focus group was conducted with blind users to determine their perceptions of security-related challenges. Human-interaction proof (HIP) tools, commonly known as CAPTCHAs, are used by web pages to defeat robots and were identified in the focus group as a major concern. Therefore, a usability test was conducted to see how well blind users were able to use audio equivalents of these graphical tools. Finally, an accessible HIP tool was developed which combines audio and matching images, supporting both visual and audio output. Encouraging results from a small usability evaluation of the prototype with five sighted users and five blind users show that this new form of HIP is preferred by both blind and visual users to previous forms of text-based HIPs. Future directions for research are also discussed.

Keywords

CAPTCHA Blind users Security HIP Universal usability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Our thanks to The National Federation of the Blind for assisting us with recruiting participants. We appreciate the assistance of John D’Arcy on the development of the HIPUU prototype. This paper is an expanded version of the paper presented at CWUAAT and published in “Designing Inclusive Futures.”

References

  1. 1.
    US Census Bureau. Americans with Disabilities: 2002. Available at: http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/disability/sipp/disab02/ds02ta.html (2002)
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization. Magnitude and causes of visual impairment. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/ (2006)
  3. 3.
    Johnston, J., Eloff, J., Labuschagne, L.: Security and human computer interfaces. Comput. Secur. 22(8), 675–684 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sasse, M.A., Brostoff, S., Weirich, D.: Transforming the weakest link—a human/computer interaction approach to usable and effective security. BT Technol. J. 19(3), 122–130 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D’Arcy, J., Feng, J.: Investigating security-related behaviors among computer users with motor impairments. Poster abstracts of SOUPS 06. Available via http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/soups/2006/posters/darcy-poster_abstract.pdf (2006). Accessed 10 March 2007
  6. 6.
    World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Inaccessibility of CAPTCHA. Availible via http://www.w3.org/TR/turingtest/ (2007). Accessed 10 March 2007
  7. 7.
    Robinson, S.: Human or computer? Take this test. Available Via http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9907E5DF163AF933A25751C1A9649C8B63 (2002). Accessed 17 March 2007
  8. 8.
    Von Ahn, L., Blum, M., Hopper, N., Langford, J.: CAPTCHA: using hard AI problems for security. Available via http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~biglou/captcha_crypt.pdf (2003) Accessed 3 April 2007
  9. 9.
    Yan, J.: A low-cost attack on a microsoft CAPTCHA. Available via http://homepages.cs.ncl.ac.uk/jeff.yan/msn_draft.pdf (2008). Accessed 2 June 2008
  10. 10.
    Mori, G., Malik, J.: Recognizing objects in adversarial clutter: breaking a visual CAPTCHA. In: Computer Vission and Pattern Recognition (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    ReCAPTCHA: Stop Spam Read Books. Available via http://recaptcha.net/ (2007). Accessed 7 May 2008
  12. 12.
    Von Ahn, L., Blum, M., Langford, J.: Telling humans and computers apart automatically. Comm. ACM 47(2), 57–60 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chellapilla, K., Larson, K., Simard, P., Czerwinski, M.: Designing human friendly human interaction proofs (HIPS). In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yan, J.: Usability of CAPTCHAs or usability issues in CAPTCHA design. Available via http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/soups/2008/proceedings/p44Yan.pdf (2008). Accessed 2 June 2008
  15. 15.
    RSA Strong Authentication. Available via http://www.rsa.com/go/gpage.aspx?id=44&engine=googamericasearch!795&keyword=(secure+id)&match_type= (2007). Accessed 28 June 2008
  16. 16.
    Elson, J., Douceur, J., Saul, J.: Asirra: A CAPTCHA that exploits interest-aligned manual image categorization. In: Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on Computer and communications security (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Datta, R., Li, J., Wang, J.: IMAGINATION: a robust image-based CAPTCHA generation system. In: Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM international conference on Multimedia (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Holman, J., Lazar, J., Feng, J., D’Arcy, J.: Developing usable CAPTCHAs for blind users. In: Proceedings of the 9th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graig Sauer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jonathan Holman
    • 1
  • Jonathan Lazar
    • 1
  • Harry Hochheiser
    • 1
  • Jinjuan Feng
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Universal Usability LaboratoryTowson UniversityTowsonUSA

Personalised recommendations