A geometric approach to remote eye tracking

  • Arantxa Villanueva
  • Gintautas Daunys
  • Dan Witzner Hansen
  • Martin Böhme
  • Rafael Cabeza
  • André Meyer
  • Erhardt Barth
Long Paper


This paper presents a principled analysis of various combinations of image features to determine their suitability for remote eye tracking. It begins by reviewing the basic theory underlying the connection between eye image and gaze direction. Then a set of approaches is proposed based on different combinations of well-known features and their behaviour is evaluated, taking into account various additional criteria such as free head movement, and minimum hardware and calibration requirements. The paper proposes a final method based on multiple glints and the pupil centre; the method is evaluated experimentally. Future trends in eye tracking technology are also discussed.


Gaze estimation Geometric modelling Eye model Eye tracking 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arantxa Villanueva
    • 1
  • Gintautas Daunys
    • 2
  • Dan Witzner Hansen
    • 3
  • Martin Böhme
    • 4
  • Rafael Cabeza
    • 1
  • André Meyer
    • 4
  • Erhardt Barth
    • 4
  1. 1.Electrical and Electronics Engineering DepartmentPublic University of NavarreNavarreSpain
  2. 2.Department of ElectronicsSiauliai UniversitySiauliaiLithuania
  3. 3.Technical University of Denmark/IT UniversityCopenhagenDenmark
  4. 4.Institute for Neuro- and BioinformaticsUniversity of LübeckLübeckGermany

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