Advertisement

Representing older people: towards meaningful images of the user in design scenarios

  • Mark BlytheEmail author
  • Andy Dearden
Long Paper

Abstract

Designing for older people requires the consideration of a range of design problems, which may be related to difficult and sometimes highly personal matters. Issues such as fear, loneliness, dependency, and physical decline may be hard to observe or discuss in interviews. Pastiche scenarios and pastiche personae are techniques that employ characters to create a space for the discussion of new technological developments and user experience. This paper argues that the use of fictional characters can help to overcome restrictive notions of older people by disrupting designers’ prior assumptions. In this paper, we reflect on our experiences using pastiche techniques in two separate technology design projects that sought to address the needs of older people. In the first pastiche scenarios were developed by the designers of the system and used as discussion documents with users. In the second pastiche personae were used by groups of users themselves to generate scenarios which were scribed for later use by the design team. We explore how the use of fictional characters and settings can generate new ideas and undercut the potential in scenarios, for weak characterisation of “the user” to permit scenario writers to fit characters to technology rather than vice versa. To assist in future development of pastiche techniques in designing for older people, we provide an array of fictional older characters drawn from literary and popular culture.

Keywords

Pastiche scenarios Pastiche personae Experience-centred design Conceptual design Participatory design 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge the constructive input we have received from: Peter Wright, Christopher Power, Helen Petrie, Ann Light, the editors of this special issue and the anonymous reviewers of the paper. We would like to thank all the participants in the DATES project and the Net Neighbours project who have contributed to the development of these ideas. This work was supported by the EPSRC research grant GR/S70326/01 Theory & method for experience-centred design and AHRC research grant AH/E507441/1, Practical design for social action.

References

  1. 1.
    Age Concern.: Concerned About Ageing? The Needs of Older People: Key Issues and Evidence. Age Concern England, London (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alexander, I., Maiden, N. (eds.): Scenarios, Stories, Use Cases Through the Systems Development Life-cycle. Wiley, Chichester (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Austen, J.: Pride and Prejudice. Oxford University Press, London (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bakhtin, M.M.: Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis (1984)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bannon, L.: (1991) From human factors to human actors, In: Greenbaum, J., Kyng, M. (eds.): Design at Work: Design of Computer Systems, pp. 25–44, Lawrence Erlbaum Associated, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bell, G., Blythe, M., Sengers, P.: Making by Making Strange: Defamiliarisation and the Design of Domestic Technologies ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) Volume 12, Issue 2 (June 2005) ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) pp. 149–173 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bell, J.: Characterisation. In: Bell, J., Magrs, P. (eds.): The Creative Writing Coursebook. Macmillan, Basingstoke pp. 95–109 (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benyon, D.R., Macaulay, C.: Scenario and the HCI-SE design problem. Interact. Comput. 14(4), 297–405 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Benyon, D., Macaulay, C.: A scenario-based design method for human-centred interaction design. In: Alexander, I., Maiden, N. (eds.) Scenarios, Stories, Use Cases Through the Systems Development Life-Cycle, pp. 211–235. Wiley, Chichester (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blythe, M.: Pastiche Scenarios in More Funology Special Issue of Interactions (eds. Blythe Hassenzahl and Wright) (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blythe, M., Monk, A.F.: Net Neighbours: adapting HCI methods to cross the digital divide. Interact. Comput. 17, 35–56 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blythe, M., Monk, A., Doughty, K., Socially Dependable Design: The Challenge of Ageing Populations for HCI. Interact. Comput. (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blythe, M., Wright, P.: Pastiche scenarios: fiction as a resource for experience centred design. Interact. Comput. 18(5), 1139–1164 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Blythe, M., Frohlich, D., Robinson, J., Stricevic, M.: The “Weegie” Installation: Audiophotography and Community Storytelling. Art Works, Proceedings of The First International Symposium on Culture, Creativity and Interaction Design, CCID 2006. LeonardoNet Network. HCI2006 Queen Mary’s London (2006a)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blythe, M., Manandhar, S., Wright, P., Gaver, B.: The Literary Fridge: Books of the Moment and Digital Fridge Poetry. Art Works, Proceedings of The First International Symposium on Culture, Creativity and Interaction Design, CCID 2006. LeonardoNet Network. HCI2006 Queen Mary’s London (2006b)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Buchenau, Suri.: Experience Prototyping In proceedings of DIS 2000. ACM Press, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carroll, J.M.: Scenario-based Design: Envisioning Work and Technology in System Development. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carroll, J.M.: Five reasons for scenario-based design. Interact. Comput. 13, 43–60 (2000a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carroll, J.M.: Making Use: Scenario Based Design of Human Computer Interaction. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000b)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chavan, A. L.: Another culture, another method. In: HCII2005 Conference Proceedings (CD Rom), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clifford, J., Marcus, G.E. (eds.): Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. University of California Press, Berkeley (1986)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cohen, L.: Old age: cultural and critical perspectives. Anthropology 23, 137–58 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Coleman, R.: Living Longer: The New Context for Design. The Design Council (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cooper, A.L.: The Inmates are Running the Asylum: Why High-tech Products Drive Us Crazy and How to Restore the Sanity. Sams, Indianapolis (1999)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Curry, R.G., Tinoco, M.T., Wardle, D.: The Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Support Independent Living for Older and Disabled People. Department of Health, London (2002)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Davis, M.: Theoretical Foundations for Experiential Systems Design. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM SIGMM Workshop on Experiential Telepresence, pp. 45–52 (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dearden, A.: Design as conversation with digital materials. Des. Stud. 27(3), 399–421 (2006)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dearden, A., Lauener, A., Slack, F., Roast, C., Cassidy, S.: Make it so! Jean-Luc Picard, Bart Simpson and the Design of e-Public Services. In: Jacucci, G., Kensing, F., Wagner, I., Blomberg, J (eds.): Proceedings of PDC 2006: Expanding Boundaries in Design, pp. 67–76. ACM Press (2006)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Derrida.: Writing and Difference, Trans. Alan Bass. Routledge, London (2004)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dexter, C.: Last Bus to Woodstock (1975). Pan CrimeGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Diaper, D.: Scenarios and task analysis Interact. Comput. 14(4), 379–395 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dickens, C.: The Old Curiosity Shop. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1997)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dickens, C.: Great Expectations. Broadview Press, Peterborough (1998)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dickens, C.: A Christmas Carol. Broadview Press, Peterborough (2003)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dickens, C.: The Adventures of Oliver Twist. Broadview Press, Peterborough (2005)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dix, A., Finlay, J., Abowd, G., Beale, R.: Human Computer Interaction 2nd Edn, Prentice-Hall (1998)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Djajadiningrat, J.P., Gaver, W.W., Frens, J.W.: Interaction Relabelling and Extreme Characters: Methods for Exploring Aesthetic Interactions Proceedings of the 2000 Conference on Designing Interactive Systems. ACM Press, pp. 66–71 (2000)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fielding, H.: Bridget Jones’s Diary. Picador, London (1996)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Forlizzi, J., Ford, S.: The Building Blocks of Experience: An Early Framework for Interaction Designers. IDIS 2000 seminar. Communications of the ACM, pp. 419–423 (2000)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gaver, W., Beaver, J., Benford, S.: Ambiguity as a Resource for Design. CHI2003. (Ft. Lauderdale, Florida Chi) Conference Proceedings 233–240 (2003)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Grudin, J.: Why Persona’s Work: The Psychological Evidence. In: Pruitt, J., Adlin, T.: The Persona Lifecycle: Keeping People in Mind Throughout the Product Design Cycle. Elsevier (2006)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Help The Aged.: Older People and Fear of Crime: A report by the Help the Aged Policy Team. London Help The Aged (2002a)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Healey, T., Ross, K.: Growing Old Invisibly: Older Viewers Talk Television. Media, Culture and Society, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 105–120. Sage Publication, London (2002)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hertzum, M.: Making use of scenarios: a field study of conceptual design. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 58(2), 215–239 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jameson, F.: Archaelogies of the Future: The Desire Called Utopia and other Science Fictions. Verso, London (2005)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jeavans, C.: Welcome to the Ageing Future. BBC news. 29 November 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4012797.stm (accessed 1.05.07) (2004)
  47. 47.
    Lauener, A., Slack, F., Dearden, A., Roast, C., Yates, S., Cassidy, S.: Methodologies for working with older people: pastiche scenarios. Gerontechnology. 5(1), 16–28 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    McCarthy, J., Wright, P.: Technology as Experience. MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    McCarthy, J., Wright, P.C.: Putting “felt-life” at the centre of human–computer interaction (HCI). Cogn. Technol. Work. 7.4, 262–271 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Macdonald, M.: A writer's life: Helen Dunmore (Filed: 21/09/2003). Daily Telegraph, London (2003)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mitchell, M.: Gone with the Wind. Macmillan, New York (1936)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mitnitski, A., Graham, J., Mogilner, A., Rockwood, K.: Frailty, fitness and late-life mortality in relation to chronological and biological age. BMC. Geriatr. 21, 1–8 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Newell, A.F., Morgan, M.E., Gregor, P., Carmichael, A.: Theatre as an Intermediary Between Users and CHI Designers, Proceedings of CHI 2006, pp.111–117. ACM Press (2006)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nielsen, L.: From User to Character: An Investigation into User-descriptions in Scenarios. In: Proceedings of Designing Interactive Systems (DIS 2002). pp. 99–104. ACM Press (2002)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Norman, D.A.: Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. Basic Books, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Preece, J., Rogers, Y., Sharp, H.: Interaction design: beyond human-computer interaction. Wiley, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Redström, J.: Towards user design? On the shift from object to user as the subject of design. Des. Stud. 27(1), 123–139 (2006)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Richmond, R., Coffman, A. (eds.): The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to our Favourite Family. Harper perennial Library, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rosson, M.-B., Carroll, J.: Usability Engineering. Morgan Kaufman, San Fransisco (2002)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Russell, W.: Shirley Valentine: A play. Samuel French (1988)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schaffer, E.: The Bollywood Technique. Human Factors International, UI Design Newsletter, June 2002. Available from http://www.humanfactors.com/downloads/jun02.asp#bollywood (last visited, 12 April 2007) (2002)
  62. 62.
    Schon, D.A.: The Reflective Practitioner. Basic Books, New York (1983)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Shklovsky, V.: Art as Technique, in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Modernism Through Poststructuralism. Edited and with Introductions by Robert Con Davis. Longman Press, New York 56 (1986)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shyba, Tam.: Developing character personas and scenarios vital steps in theatrical performance and HCI goal-directed design Creativity and Cognition Proceedings 2005, pp. 187–194 (2005)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    The Simpsons.: Burns, Baby Burns. Production code 4F05. US Airdate 17 Nov 1996Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    The Simpsons.: Lisa The Vegetarian. Production code 3F03. US Airdate 15 Oct 1995Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    The Simpsons.: Curse of the Flying Hellfish. Production code 3F19. US Airdate 28 April 1996Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    The Simpsons.: Lisa’s First Word. Production code 9F08. US Airdate 3 Dec 1992Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    The Simpsons.: Lisa versus Malibu Stacy. Production code 1F12. US Airdate 17 Feb 1994Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    The Simpsons.: Bart the General. Production code 7G05. US Airdate 4 Feb 1990Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Thompson N.: Illness, Crisis, and Loss, vol. 12, no. 1. Baywood Publishing, USA (2004)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Townsend, S.: The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole aged 13 3/4 Methuen, London (1982)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wodehouse, P.G.: My Man Jeeves, George Newnes (1919)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wright, P.C., McCarthy, J.: The value of the novel in designing for experience. In: Pirhonen, A., Isomäki, H., Roast, C., Saariluoma, P. (eds.) Future Interaction Design. pp. 9–30. Springer, Heidelberg (2005) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of YorkYorkUK
  2. 2.Communication and Computing Research CentreSheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations