Advertisement

International Journal of Information Security

, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 587–601 | Cite as

Watermarking protocols: an excursus to motivate a new approach

  • Franco FrattolilloEmail author
Regular Contribution
  • 174 Downloads

Abstract

Digital watermarking is one of the techniques that can be used to support digital copyright protection. It enables copyright owners to insert a perceptually invisible watermark within any copy of content that is distributed on the Internet. The main aim is to use watermarks to implement copyright identification and content tracking. However, digital watermarking is not sufficient to ensure an adequate copyright protection, if it is not employed in conjunction with watermarking protocols, which define the schemes of the web transactions by which buyers can purchase protected digital content distributed by content providers in a secure manner. Therefore, watermarking protocols play a central role in the field of digital copyright protection by means of watermarking techniques. They have to ensure both a correct content protection and an easy participation of buyers in the purchase transactions of the contents distributed on the Internet. This paper presents a new watermarking protocol based on an innovative, buyer centric, and mediated design approach. The result is a secure protocol that enables buyers to easily participate in the transactions by which they can buy digital protected content, and this makes the protocol suited for the current web context.

Keywords

Watermarking protocols Digital copyright protection 

References

  1. 1.
    Cox, I., Miller, M., Bloom, J., Fridrich, J., Kalker, T.: Digital Watermarking and Steganography. Morgan Kaufmann, Burlington (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu, K.J.R., Trappe, W., Wang, Z.J., Wu, M., Zhao, H.: Multimedia Fingerprinting Forensics for Traitor Tracing. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, New York (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pehlivanoglu, S.: An asymmetric fingerprinting code for collusion-resistant buyer–seller watermarking. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM Workshop on Information Hiding and Multimedia Security, Montpellier, France, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 17–19 June 2013, pp. 35–44Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gopalakrishnan, K., Memon, N., Vora, P.L.: Protocols for watermark verification. IEEE Multimed. 8(4), 66–70 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kuribayashy, M., Tanaka, H.: Fingerprinting protocol for images based on additive homomorphic property. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(12), 2129–2139 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frattolillo, F.: Watermarking protocol for web context. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 2(3), 350–363 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Frattolillo, F.: Watermarking protocols: problems, challenges and a possible solution. Comput. J. 58(4), 944–960 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Memon, N., Wong, P.W.: A buyer–seller watermarking protocol. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(4), 643–649 (2001)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lei, C.L., Yu, P.L., Tsai, P.L., Chan, M.H.: An efficient and anonymous buyer-seller watermarking protocol. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(12), 1618–1626 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fan, C.I., Chen, M.T., Sun, W.Z.: Buyer–seller watermarking protocols with off-line trusted parties. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Internationla Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, Seul, South Korea, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 26–28 April 2007, pp. 1035–1040Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Das, V.V.: Buyer–seller watermarking protocol for an anonymous network transaction. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 16–18 July 2008, pp. 807–812Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laxmi, V., Khan, M.N., Sarath, S., Gaur, M.S.: Buyer–seller watermarking protocol for digital rights management. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Security of information and networks, Famagusta, North Cyprus, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 6–10 Oct 2009, pp. 298–301Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hu, D., Li, Q.: A secure and practical buyer–seller watermarking protocol. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security, Wuhan, China, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 18–20 Nov 2009, pp. 105–108Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rial, A., Deng, M., Bianchi, T., Piva, A., Preneel, B.: A provably secure anonymous buyer–seller watermarking protocol. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 5(4), 920–931 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rial, A., Balasch, J., Preneel, B.: A privacy-preserving buyer–seller watermarking protocol based on priced oblivious transfer. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 6(1), 202–212 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xu, Z., Li, L., Gao, H.: Bandwidth efficient buyer–seller watermarking protocol. Int. J. Inf. Comput. Secur. 5(1), 1–10 (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bianchi, T., Piva, A.: TTP-free asymmetric fingerprinting based on client side embedding. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 9(10), 1557–1568 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bianchi, T., Piva, A., Shullani, D.: Anticollusion solutions for asymmetric fingerprinting protocols based on client side embedding. EURASIP J. Inf. Secur. 2015, 6 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barni, M., Bartolini, F.: Data hiding for fighting piracy. IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 21(2), 28–39 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhao, H.V., Liu, K.J.R.: Traitor-within-traitor behavior forensics: strategy and risk minimization. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 1(4), 440–456 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Frattolillo, F.: A buyer-friendly and mediated watermarking protocol for web context. ACM Trans. Web 10(2), 9 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Green, M., Ateniese, G.: Identity-based proxy re-encryption. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Applied Cryptography and Network Security, Zhuhai, China, Springer, Berlin, German, 5–8 June 2007, pp. 288–306Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Libert, B., Vergnaud, D.: Unidirectional chosen-ciphertext secure proxy re-encryption. In Cramer, R., ed.: Proc. 11th Int. Work. on Practice and Theory in Public-Key Cryptography. Volume 4939 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science., Barcelona, Spain, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, German (March, 9–12 2008) 360–379Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yu, S., Wang, C., Ren, K., Lou, W.: Achieving secure, scalable, and fine-grained data access control in cloud computing. In: Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Conference on Information communications, San Diego, CA, USA, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 14–19 Mar 2010, pp. 534–542Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yu, S., Wang, C., Ren, K., Lou, W.: Attribute based data sharing with attribute revocation. In: Proceedings of the 5th ACM Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security, Beijing, China, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 13–16 Apr 2010, pp. 261–270Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang, G., Liu, Q., Wu, J., Guo, M.: Hierarchical attribute-based encryption and scalable user revocation for sharing data in cloud servers. Comput. Secur. 30(5), 320–331 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chen, Y.R., Tygar, J.D., Tzeng, W.G.: Secure group key management using uni-directional proxy re-encryption schemes. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, Shanghai, China, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 10–15 Apr 2011, pp. 1952–1960Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fontaine, C., Galand, F.: A survey of homomorphic encryption for nonspecialists. EURASIP Journal on Information Security 2007 (2007)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhang, J., Kou, W., Fan, K.: Secure buyer–seller watermarking protocol. IEE Proc. Inf. Secur. 153(1), 15–18 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Deng, M., Preneel, B.: Attacks on two buyer–seller watermarking protocols and an improvement for revocable anonymity. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security, Guangzhou, China, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 3–5 Aug 2008, pp. 923–929Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hu, Y., Zhang, J.: A secure and efficient buyer–seller watermarking protocol. J. Multimed. 4(3), 161–168 (2009)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Katzenbeisser, S., Lemma, A., Celik, M.U., van der Veen, M., Maas, M.: A buyer–seller watermarking protocol based on secure embedding. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 3(4), 783–786 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lemma, A.N., Katzenbeisser, S., Celik, M.U., v. d. Veen, M.: Secure watermark embedding through partial encryption. In: Shi, Y.Q., Jeon, B. (eds) Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Digital Watermarking. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4283, Jeju Island, Korea, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 8–10 Nov 2006, pp. 433–445Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Celik, M., Lemma, A., Katzenbeisser, S., van der Veen, M.: Lookup table based secure client-side embedding for spread-spectrum watermarks. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 3(3), 475–487 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aiello, W., Ishai, Y., Reingold, O.: Priced oblivious transfer: How to sell digital goods. In: Pfitzmann, B. (ed) Proceedings of the International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques: Advances in Cryptology. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2045, Innsbruck, Austria, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, German, 6–10 May 2001, pp. 119–135Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wen, Q., Wang, Y.: Improvement of the digital watermarking protocol based on the zero-watermark method. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Summit and Conference of Asia Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association, Xi’an, China, PSIPA publisher, 19–21 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cox, I., Kilian, J., et al.: Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 6(12), 1673–1687 (1997)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Naor, M., Pinkas, B.: Efficient oblivious transfer protocols. In: Proceedings of the 12th Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete algorithms, Washington, DC, USA, 7–9 Jan 2001, pp. 448–457Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Terelius, B.: Towards transferable watermarks in buyer–seller watermarking protocols. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Information Forensics and Security, Guangzhou, China, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 18–21 Nov 2013, pp. 197–202Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tardos, G.: Optimal probabilistic fingerprint codes. In: Proceedings of the 35th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, San Diego, CA, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 9–11 June 2003, pp. 116–125Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Huang, J.C., Jeng, F.G., Chen, T.H.: A new buyer–seller watermarking protocol without multiple watermarks insertion. Multimed. Tools Appl. 75(33), 1–13 (2016)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Naor, M., Shamir, A.: Visual cryptography. In: Proceedings of the Eurocrypt ‘94. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 950, Perugia, Italy, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, May 1995, pp. 1–12Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Deng, M., Preneel, B.: On secure and anonymous buyer–seller watermarking protocol. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services, Athens, Greece, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 8–13 June 2008, pp. 524–529Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Deng, M., Bianchi, T., Piva, A., Preneel, B.: An efficient buyer–seller watermarking protocol based on composite signal representation. In: Proceedings of the 11th ACM Workshop on Multimedia and Security, Princeton, NJ, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 7–8 Sept 2009, pp. 9–18Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chen, B., Wornell, G.: Quantization index modulation: a class of provably good methods for digital watermarking and information embedding. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 47(4), 1423–1443 (2001)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Boneh, D., Ding, X., Tsudik, G., Wong, C.M.: A method for fast revocation of public key certificates and security capabilities. In: Proceedings of the 10th USENIX Security Symposium, Washington, D.C., USA, The USENIX Association, 13–17 Aug 2001, pp. 297–308Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ding, X., Tsudik, G.: Simple identity-based cryptography with mediated RSA. In: Joye, M. (ed.) The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2003. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2612 , San Francisco, CA, USA, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 13–17 Apr 2003, pp. 193–210Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Poh, G.S., Martin, K.M.: Classification framework for fair content tracing protocols. In: Ho, A.T.S., Shi, Y.Q., Kim, H.J., Barni, M. (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Digital Watermarking. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5703, Guildford, UK, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 24–26 Aug 2009, pp. 252–267Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ellison, C., Frantz, B., Lampson, B., Rivest, R., Thomas, B., Ylonen, T.: SPKI certificate theory. RFC 2693 (1999)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Qiao, L., Nahrstedt, K.: Watermarking schemes and protocols for protecting rightful ownership and customer’s rights. J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent. 9(9), 194–210 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rannenberg, K., Royer, D., Deuker, A.: The Future of Identity in the Information Society—Challenges and Opportunities. Springer, Berlin (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Williams, D.M., Treharne, H., Ho, A.T.S.: On the importance of one-time key pairs in buyer–seller watermarking protocols. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Security and Cryptography, Athens, Greece, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 26–28 July 2010, pp. 441–446Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bellare, M., Goldreich, O.: On defining proofs of knowledge. In: Brickell, E.F. (ed.) Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Cryptology Conference. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 740, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 16–20 Aug 1992, pp. 390–420Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Camenisch, J., Stadler, M.: Proof systems for general statements about discrete logarithms. Technical Report TR 260, Institute for Theoretical Computer Science, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland (March 1997)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Damgård, I., Jurik, M.: A generalisation, a simplification and some applications of Paillier’s probabilistic public-key system. In: Kim, K. (ed.) Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Practice and Theory in Public Key Cryptography. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1992, Cheju Island, Korea, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 13–15 Feb 2001, pp. 119–136Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Canetti, R.: Security and composition of cryptographic protocols: a tutorial. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2006/465 (2006)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hartung, F., Su, J.K., Girod, B.: Spread spectrum watermarking: malicious attacks and counterattacks. In: Delp, E.J., Wong, P.W. (eds.) Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 3657, San Jose, CA, USA, SPIE, Bellingham WA, USA, 9 Apr 1999, pp. 147–158Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Katzenbeisser, S., Veith, H.: Securing symmetric watermarking schemes against protocol attacks. In: Delp, E.J., Wong, P.W. (eds.) Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 4675 S. Jose, CA, USA, SPIE, Bellingham WA, USA, 29 Apr 2002, pp. 260–268Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Petitcolas, F.A.P.: Watermarking schemes evaluation. IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17(5), 58–64 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Paillier, P.: Public-key cryptosystems based on composite degree residuosity classes. In: Proceedings of the Eurocrypt ‘99. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1592, Prague, Czech Republic, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2–6 May 1999, pp. 223–238Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bellare, M., Rogaway, P.: The security of triple encryption and a framework for code-based game-playing proofs. In: Vaudenay, S. (ed.) Proceedings of the 25th International Cryptology Conference. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4004, Saint Petersburg, Russia, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 28 May–1 June 2006, pp. 409–426Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Williams, D.M., Treharne, H., Ho, A.T.S., Waller, A.: Formal analysis of two buyer–seller watermarking protocols. In: Kim, H.J., Katzenbeisser, S., Ho, A.T.S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Digital Watermarking. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5450, Busan, Korea, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 10–12 Nov 2008, pp. 278–292Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EngineeringUniversity of SannioBeneventoItaly

Personalised recommendations