International Journal of Information Security

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 25–49

Plaintext awareness in identity-based key encapsulation

  • Mark Manulis
  • Bertram Poettering
  • Douglas Stebila
Regular Contribution
  • 231 Downloads

Abstract

The notion of plaintext awareness (\({\mathsf{PA}}\)) has many applications in public key cryptography: it offers unique, stand-alone security guarantees for public key encryption schemes, has been used as a sufficient condition for proving indistinguishability against adaptive chosen-ciphertext attacks (\({\mathsf{IND}\hbox {-}{\mathsf{CCA}}}\)), and can be used to construct privacy-preserving protocols such as deniable authentication. Unlike many other security notions, plaintext awareness is very fragile when it comes to differences between the random oracle and standard models; for example, many implications involving \({\mathsf{PA}}\) in the random oracle model are not valid in the standard model and vice versa. Similarly, strategies for proving \({\mathsf{PA}}\) of schemes in one model cannot be adapted to the other model. Existing research addresses \({\mathsf{PA}}\) in detail only in the public key setting. This paper gives the first formal exploration of plaintext awareness in the identity-based setting and, as initial work, proceeds in the random oracle model. The focus is laid mainly on identity-based key encapsulation mechanisms (IB-KEMs), for which the paper presents the first definitions of plaintext awareness, highlights the role of \({\mathsf{PA}}\) in proof strategies of \({\mathsf{IND}\hbox {-}{\mathsf{CCA}}}\) security, and explores relationships between \({\mathsf{PA}}\) and other security properties. On the practical side, our work offers the first, highly efficient, general approach for building IB-KEMs that are simultaneously plaintext-aware and \({\mathsf{IND}\hbox {-}{\mathsf{CCA}}}\)-secure. Our construction is inspired by the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transform, but demands weaker and more natural properties of its building blocks. This result comes from a new look at the notion of \(\gamma \)-uniformity that was inherent in the original FO transform. We show that for IB-KEMs (and PK-KEMs), this assumption can be replaced with a weaker computational notion, which is in fact implied by one-wayness. Finally, we give the first concrete IB-KEM scheme that is \({\mathsf{PA}}\) and \({\mathsf{IND}\hbox {-}{\mathsf{CCA}}}\)-secure by applying our construction to a popular IB-KEM and optimizing it for better performance.

Keywords

Plaintext awareness Identity-based encryption Key encapsulation mechanism  Generic transformation 

References

  1. 1.
    Abe, M., Gennaro, R., Kurosawa, K., Shoup, V.: Tag-KEM/DEM: a new framework for hybrid encryption and a new analysis of Kurosawa-Desmedt KEM. In: Cramer, R. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3494, pp. 128–146. Springer, Berlin (2005) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aranha, D.F., Karabina, K., Longa, P., Gebotys, C.H., López, J.: Faster explicit formulas for computing pairings over ordinary curves. In: Paterson, K. (ed.) 30th International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques (EUROCRYPT 2011). LNCS, vol. 6632, pp. 48–68. Springer, (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bellare, M., Desai, A., Pointcheval, D., Rogaway, P.: Relations among notions of security for public-key encryption schemes. In: Krawczyk, H. (ed.) CRYPTO’98. LNCS, vol. 1462, pp. 26–45. Springer, Berlin (1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bellare, M., Palacio, A.: Towards plaintext-aware public-key encryption without random oracles. In: Lee, P.J. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3329, pp. 37–52. Springer, Berlin (2004), full version available as http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/users/mihir/papers/pa.pdf
  5. 5.
    Bellare, M., Rogaway, P.: Optimal asymmetric encryption. In: Santis, A.D. (ed.) EUROCRYPT’94. LNCS, vol. 950, pp. 92–111. Springer, Berlin (1994), full version available as http://www-cse.ucsd.edu/mihir/papers/oaep.html
  6. 6.
    Bentahar, K., Farshim, P., Malone-Lee, J., Smart, N.P.: Generic constructions of identity-based and certificateless KEMs. J. Cryptol. 21(2), 178–199 (2008)CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Birkett, J., Dent, A.W.: Relations among notions of plaintext awareness. In: Cramer, R. (ed.) PKC 2008. LNCS, vol. 4939, pp. 47–64. Springer, Berlin (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Birkett, J., Dent, A.W.: Security models and proof strategies for plaintext-aware encryption. Manuscript. http://www.isg.rhul.ac.uk/alex/papers/plaintext_journal.pdf (2011)
  9. 9.
    Blake, I., Seroussi, G., Smart, N., Cassels, J.W.S.: Advances in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series). Cambridge University Press, New York (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boneh, D., Canetti, R., Halevi, S., Katz, J.: Chosen-ciphertext security from identity-based encryption. SIAM J. Comput. 36(5), 1301–1328 (2007)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boneh, D., Franklin, M.: Identity-based encryption from the Weil pairing. In: Kilian, J. (ed.) CRYPTO 2001. LNCS, vol. 2139, pp. 213–229. Springer, Berlin (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boneh, D., Katz, J.: Improved efficiency for CCA-secure cryptosystems built using identity-based encryption. In: Menezes, A.J. (ed.) CT-RSA 2005. LNCS, vol. 3376, pp. 87–103. Springer, Berlin (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boyen, X., Mei, Q., Waters, B.: Direct chosen ciphertext security from identity-based techniques. In: ACM CCS 2005. pp. 320–329. ACM (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Canetti, R., Halevi, S., Katz, J.: Chosen-ciphertext security from identity-based encryption. In: Cachin, C., Camenisch, J. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3027, pp. 207–222. Springer, Berlin (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen, L., Cheng, Z.: Security proof of Sakai-Kasahara’s identity-based encryption scheme. In: Smart, N.P. (ed.) Cryptography and Coding—10th IMA International Conference. LNCS, vol. 3796, pp. 442–459. Springer, Berlin (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen, L., Cheng, Z., Malone-Lee, J., Smart, N.P.: Efficient ID-KEM based on the Sakai–Kasahara key construction. IEE Proceedings-Information Security 153(1), 19–26 (2006, March), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1613725&isnumber=33872 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cramer, R., Shoup, V.: Universal hash proofs and a paradigm for adaptive chosen ciphertext secure public-key encryption. In: Knudsen, L. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2002. LNCS, vol. 2332, pp. 45–64. Springer, Berlin (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cramer, R., Shoup, V.: Design and analysis of practical public-key encryption schemes secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack. SIAM J. Comput. 33(1), 167–226 (2003)CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dent, A.W.: A designer’s guide to KEMs. In: Paterson, K.G. (ed.) Cryptography and Coding. LNCS, vol. 2898, pp. 133–151. Springer, Berlin (2003), updated version available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2002/174
  20. 20.
    Dent, A.W.: The Cramer-Shoup encryption scheme is plaintext aware in the standard model. In: Vaudenay, S. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2006. LNCS, vol. 4004, pp. 289–307. Springer, Berlin (2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Desmedt, Y., Gennaro, R., Kurosawa, K., Shoup, V.: A new and improved paradigm for hybrid encryption secure against chosen-ciphertext attack. J. Cryptol. 23(1), 91–120 (2010)CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Di Raimondo, M., Gennaro, R., Krawczyk, H.: Deniable authentication and key exchange. In: Wright, R., De Capitani de Vimercati, S., Shmatikov, V. (eds.) ACM CCS 2006. pp. 400–409. ACM (2006), full version available as http://eprint.iacr.org/2006/280
  23. 23.
    Dolev, D., Dwork, C., Naor, M.: Nonmalleable cryptography. SIAM J. Comput. 30(2), 391–437 (2000)CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    ElGamal, T.: A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms. In: Blakley, G.R., Chaum, D. (eds.) CRYPTO. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 196, pp. 10–18. Springer, Berlin (1984)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Elkind, E., Sahai, A.: A Unified Methodology For Constructing Public-Key Encryption Schemes Secure Against Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attack. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2002/042 (2002), http://eprint.iacr.org/
  26. 26.
    Fujisaki, E., Okamoto, T.: How to enhance the security of public-key encryption at minimum cost. In: Imai, H., Zheng, Y. (eds.) PKC 1999. LNCS, vol. 1560, pp. 53–68. Springer, Belin (1999)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fujisaki, E., Okamoto, T.: Secure integration of asymmetric and symmetric encryption schemes. In: Wiener, M. (ed.) CRYPTO’99. LNCS, vol. 1666, pp. 537–554. Springer, Berlin (1999)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Galbraith, S.D., Paterson, K.G., Smart, N.P.: Pairings for cryptographers. Discrete Appl. Math. 156(16), 3113–3121 (2008)CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Herranz, J., Hofheinz, D., Kiltz, E.: Some (in)sufficient conditions for secure hybrid encryption. Inf. Comput. 208(11), 1243–1257 (2010)CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Herzog, J., Liskov, M., Micali, S.: Plaintext awareness via key registration. In: Boneh, D. (ed.) CRYPTO 2003. LNCS, vol. 2729, pp. 548–564. Springer, Berlin (2003)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jiang, S., Wang, H.: Plaintext-awareness of hybrid encryption. In: Pieprzyk, J. (ed.) CT-RSA 2010. LNCS, vol. 5985, pp. 57–72. Springer, Berlin (2010), full version available at http://sites.google.com/site/shaoquan0825/DHIES-8.pdf
  32. 32.
    Kiltz, E.: Chosen-ciphertext security from tag-based encryption. In: Halevi, S., Rabin, T. (eds.) TCC 2006. LNCS, vol. 3876, pp. 581–600. Springer, Berlin (2006)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kiltz, E., Galindo, D.: Direct chosen-ciphertext secure identity-based key encapsulation without random oracles. Theor. Comput. Sci. 410(47–49), 5093–5111 (2009)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kitagawa, T., Yang, P., Hanaoka, G., Zhang, R., Watanabe, H., Matsuura, K., Imai, H.: Generic transforms to acquire CCA-security for identity based encryption: the cases of FOpkc and REACT. In: Batten, L.M., Safavi-Naini, R. (eds.) ACISP 2006. LNCS, vol. 4058, pp. 348–359. Springer, Berlin (2006)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kurosawa, K., Desmedt, Y.: A new paradigm of hybrid encryption scheme. In: Franklin, M. (ed.) CRYPTO. LNCS, vol. 3152, pp. 426–442. Springer, Berlin (2004)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Okamoto, T., Pointcheval, D.: REACT: rapid enhanced-security asymmetric cryptosystem transform. In: Naccache, D. (ed.) CT-RSA 2001. LNCS, vol. 2020, pp. 159–175. Springer, Berlin (2001). vol.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sahai, A.: Non-malleable non-interactive zero knowledge and adaptive chosen-ciphertext security. In: FOCS 1999. pp. 543–553 (1999)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sakai, R., Kasahara, M.: ID based cryptosystems with pairing on elliptic curve. Cryptology ePrint archive, report 2003/054 (2003) http://eprint.iacr.org/
  39. 39.
    Shoup, V.: Using hash functions as a hedge against chosen ciphertext attack. In: Preneel, B. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1807, pp. 275–288. Springer, Berlin (2000)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Teranishi, I., Ogata, W.: Relationship between standard model plaintext awareness and message hiding. In: Lai, X., Chen, K. (eds.) ASIACRYPT 2006. LNCS, vol. 4284, pp. 226–240. Springer, Berlin (2006)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Teranishi, I., Ogata, W.: Cramer-shoup satisfies a stronger plaintext awareness under a weaker assumption. In: Ostrovsky, R., Prisco, R.D., Visconti, I. (eds.) SCN 2008. LNCS, vol. 5229, pp. 109–125. Springer, Berlin (2008)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yang, P., Kitagawa, T., Hanaoka, G., Zhang, R., Matsuura, K., Imai, H.: Applying Fujisaki-Okamoto to identity-based encryption. In: Fossorier, M.P., Imai, H., Lin, S., Poli, A. (eds.) AAECC-16 2006. LNCS, vol. 3857, pp. 183–192 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Manulis
    • 1
  • Bertram Poettering
    • 2
  • Douglas Stebila
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ComputingUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK
  2. 2.Information Security GroupRoyal Holloway, University of LondonEghamUK
  3. 3.School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Science and Engineering FacultyQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations