International Journal of Information Security

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 299–318 | Cite as

An optimistic fair exchange protocol with active intermediaries

  • G. Draper-Gil
  • J. Zhou
  • J. L. Ferrer-Gomila
  • M. F. Hinarejos
Regular Contribution


The study of business transactions is a topic of interest in the field of electronic commerce. Fair Exchange protocols deal with the problem of how the different parties involved in a transaction can exchange their parts securely, i.e., with assurance that the other parties will carry on with the transaction. Fair Exchange is a field of research that has been extensively studied, but we have found that previous proposals have failed to address one problem that concerns electronic commerce, i.e., transactions with active intermediaries. Previous Fair Exchange protocols deal with scenarios where only 2 parties are involved or scenarios where N known parties have to reach a common agreement, omitting scenarios where active intermediaries are involved. In this paper, we present an Optimistic Fair Exchange protocol for transactions with active intermediaries, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first of its kind.


Fair exchange Agent-mediated exchange Complex transactions 



This work was supported by a grant, linked to the investigation project TSI2007-62986 from the Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN), Spain, and partially financed by the European Social Fund and the Consolider investigation project with reference CSD2007-00004 from the MICINN, and in collaboration with the Institute for Infocomm Research in Singapore.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Draper-Gil
    • 1
  • J. Zhou
    • 2
  • J. L. Ferrer-Gomila
    • 1
  • M. F. Hinarejos
    • 1
  1. 1.University of the Balearic IslandsPalmaSpain
  2. 2.Institute for Infocomm ResearchSingaporeSingapore

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