A random key establishment scheme for multi-phase deployment in large-scale distributed sensor networks

Regular Contribution

Abstract

Several symmetric-key distribution mechanisms are proposed in the literature, but most of them are not scalable or they are vulnerable to a small number of captured nodes. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic random key establishment mechanism in large-scale distributed sensor networks, which supports deployment of sensor nodes in multiple phases. In the existing random key distribution schemes, nodes do not refresh their own keys, and thus, the keys in their key rings remain static throughout the lifetime of the network. One good property of our dynamic key distribution scheme is that the already deployed nodes in a deployment phase refresh their own keys in key rings before another deployment phase occurs. The strength of the proposed scheme is that it provides high resilience against node capture as compared to that for the other existing random key distribution schemes. Through analysis and simulation results, we show that our scheme achieves better network performances as compared to those for the existing random key distribution schemes. Finally, we propose an extended version of our scheme for practical usefulness to support high network connectivity and resilience against node capture.

Keywords

Distributed sensor networks Key pre-distribution Direct key establishment Multi-phase deployment Security 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Akyildiz I.F., Su W., Sankarasubramaniam Y., Cayirci E.: Wireless sensor networks: a survey. Comput. Netw. 38(4), 393–422 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aumasson, J.P., Henzen, L., Meier, W., Plasencia, M.N.: Quark: a lightweight hash. In: Workshop on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES 2010), LNCS, vol. 6225, pp. 1–15 (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Batina, L., Seys, S., Singelee, D., Verbauwhede, I.: Hierarchical ECC-based RFID authentication protocol. In: 7th Workshop on RFID Security and Privacy 2011 (RFIDSec 2011), LNCS, vol. 7055, pp. 183–201 (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bogdanov, A., Knudsen, L.R., Leander, G., Paar, C., Poschmann, A., Robshaw, M.J.B., Seurin, Y., Vikkelsoe, C.: PRESENT: an ultra-lightweight block cipher. In: Workshop on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES 2007), LNCS, vol. 4727, pp. 450–466 (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Camtepe, S.A., Yener, B.: Key distribution mechanisms for wireless sensor networks: a survey March 2005. Technical Report TR-05-07, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Canniere, C.D., Dunkelman, O., Knezevic, M.: KATAN and KTANTAN—a family of small and efficient hardware-oriented block ciphers. In: Workshop on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES 2009), LNCS, vol. 5747, pp. 272–288 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Castelluccia, C., Spognardi, A.: RoK: a Robust key pre-distribution protocol for multi-phase wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Security and Provacy in Communication Networks (SecureComm’07), pp. 351–360 (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chan, H., Perrig, A.: PIKE: peer intermediaries for key establishment in sensor networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE Infocom’05 (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chan, H., Perrig, A., Song, D.: Random key predistribution schemes for sensor networks. In: IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 197–213. Berkeley, California (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chorzempa, M., Park, J.M., Eltoweissy, M.: SECK: survivable and efficient clustered keying for wireless sensor networks. In: IEEE Workshop on Information Assurance in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNIA’05), pp. 453–458 (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Das A.K.: A location-adaptive key establishment scheme for large-scale distributed wireless sensor networks. J. Comput. 4(9), 896–904 (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Das A.K.: A survey on analytic studies of key distribution mechanisms in wireless sensor networks. J. Inf. Assur. Secur. 5(5), 526–553 (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Das A.K.: An efficient random key distribution scheme for large-scale distributed sensor networks. Secur. Commun. Netw. 4(2), 162–181 (2011a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Das A.K.: Analysis and improvement on an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. IET Inf. Secur. 5(3), 145–151 (2011b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Das, A.K., Sengupta, I.: An effective group-based key establishment scheme for large-scale wireless sensor networks using bivariate polynomials. In: Third IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems Software and Middleware (COMSWARE 2008), pp. 9–16 (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Das, A.K., Sengupta, I.: A key establishment scheme for large-scale mobile wireless sensor networks. In: 4th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Internet Technology (ICDCIT 2007), LNCS 4882, pp. 79–88 (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Diffie W., Hellman M.E.: New directions in cryptography. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 22, 644–654 (1976)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dolev D., Yao A.: On the security of public key protocols. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(2), 198–208 (1983)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dong, Q., Liu, D.: Using auxiliary sensors for pairwise key establishment in WSN. In: Proceedings of IFIP International Conferences on Networking (Networking 2007), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 4479, pp. 251–262 (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Du, W., Deng, J., Han, Y.S., Chen, S., Varshney, P.K.: A key management scheme for wireless sensor networks using deployment knowledge. In: 23rd Conference of the IEEE Communications Society (Infocom’04), pp. 586–597. Hong Kong, China 21–25 March 2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Du, W., Deng, J., Han, Y.S., Varshney, P.K.: A pairwise key pre-distribution scheme for wireless sensor networks. In: ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS’03), pp. 42–51. Washington DC, USA 27–31 Oct 2003Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dutertre, B., Cheung, S., Levy, J.: Lightweight key management in wireless sensors networks by leveraging initial trust. SRI International, SDL Technical report SRI-SDL-04-02 (2004)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    ElGamal T.: A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms. IEEE Transact. Inf. Theory 31, 469–472 (1985)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Eltoweissy M., Moharram M., Mukkamala R.: Dynamic key management in sensor networks. IEEE Commun. Mag. 44(4), 122–130 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eschenauer, L., Gligor, V.D.: A key management scheme for distributed sensor networks. In: 9th ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security, pp. 41–47 (2002)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gabrielli A., Mancini L.V., Setia S., Jajodia S.: Securing topology maintenance protocols for sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Dependable Secur. Comput. 8(3), 450–465 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goldreich O., Goldwasser S., Micali S.: How to construct random functions. J. ACM 33(4), 792–807 (1986)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Secure hash standard. FIPS PUB 180-1, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), U.S. Department of Commerce (1995)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Huang D., Medhi D.: Secure pairwise key establishment in large-scale sensor networks: an area partitioning and multigroup key predistribution approach. ACM Trans. Sens. Netw. 3(3), 29–37 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Crossbow Technology Inc. Wireless sensor networks. Online available at http://www.xbow.com
  31. 31.
    Jamshaid, K., Schwiebert, L.: SEKEN: secure and efficient key exchange for sensor networks. In: Proceedings of 23rd IEEE International Performance, Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC), pp. 415–422, (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kalkan, K., Yilmaz, S., Yilmaz, O.Z., Levi, A.: A highly resilient and zone-based key predistribution protocol for multiphase wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 5th ACM symposium on QoS and security for wireless and mobile networks (Q2SWinet’09), pp. 29–36 (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Karlof, C., Wagner, D.: Secure routing in wireless sensor networks: attacks and countermeasures. In: Proceedings of the 1st IEEE International Workshop on Sensor Network, Protocols and Applications (SNPA’03) (2003)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Knudsen, L.R., Leander, G., Poschmann, A., Robshaw, M.J.B.: PRINTcipher: a block cipher for IC-printing. In: Workshop on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES 2010), LNCS, vol. 6225, pp. 16–32 (2010)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kohl, J., Neuman, B. Clifford: The Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5). RFC 1510 (1993)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lee C.-C., Li L.-H., Hwang M.-S.: A remote user authentication scheme using hash functions. ACM Oper. Syst. Rev. 36(4), 20–23 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu, D., Ning, P.: Establishing pairwise keys in distributed sensor networks. In: Proceedings of 10th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), pp. 52–61, Washington DC 27–31 Oct 2003Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu D., Ning P.: Improving key pre-distribution with deployment knowledge in static sensor networks. ACM Trans. Sens. Netw. 1(2), 204–239 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu, D., Ning, P., Du, W.: Group-based key pre-distribution in wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of 2005 ACM Workshop on Wireless Security (WiSe 2005) Sept 2005Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liu D., Ning P., Li R.: Establishing pairwise keys in distributed sensor networks. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur. 8(1), 41–77 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mehta, M., Huang, D., Harn, L.: RINK-RKP: a scheme for key predistribution and shared-key discovery in sensor networks. In: The 24th IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC’05), pp. 193–197, Phoenix, Arizona (2005)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Moharrum, M., Eltoweissy, M.: A study of static versus dynamic keying schemes in sensor networks. In: ACM Workshop on performance evaluation of Wireless Ad-hoc, Sensor and Ubiquitous Networks (PE-WASUN 2005), pp. 122–129. Montreal, Canada Oct 2005Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Newsome, J., Shi, E., Song, D., Perrig, A.: The sybil attack in sensor networks: analysis and defenses. In: Proceedings of 3rd IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN 2004), pp. 259–268 26–27 April 2004Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Parno, B., Perrig, A., Gligor, V.: Distributed detection of node replication attacks in sensor networks. In: IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 49–63, 8–11 May 2005)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pemmaraju, S.V., Pirwani, I.A.: Energy conservation via domatic partitions. In: Proceedings of the 7th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc’06), pp. 143–154 (2006)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Perrig A., Szewczyk R., Wen V., Culler D., Tygar J.D.: SPINS: security protocols for sensor networks. Wirel. Netw. 8, 521–534 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ramkumar M., Memon N.: An efficient random key pre-distribution scheme for MANET security. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23(3), 611–621 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rivest R.L.: The RC5 encryption algorithm. Dr. Dobb’s J. 20(1), 146–148 (1995)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rivest R.L., Shamir A., Adleman L.M.: A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems. Commun. ACM 21, 120–126 (1978)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Silva R.M.S., Pereira N.S.A., Nunes M.S.: Probabilistic key management practical concerns in wireless sensor networks. J. Netw. 3(2), 29–37 (2008)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stajano, F., Anderson, R.: The resurrecting duckling: Security issues for ad-hoc wireless networks. In: Security Protocols, 7th International Workshop Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 172–182 (1999)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stallings W.: Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practices, 3rd edn. Pearson Education India, Upper Saddle River (2003)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stinson D.R.: Cryptography Theory and Practice, third edn. Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton (2006)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tsai C.-S., Lin C.-W., Hwang M.-S.: A new strong-password authentication scheme using one-way hash functions. Int. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 45(4), 623–626 (2006)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Unlu, A., Armagan, O., Levi, A., Savas, E., Ercetin, O.: Key predistribution schemes for sensor networks for continuous deployment scenario. In: Proceedings of IFIP International Conferences on Networking (Networking 2007), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), vol. 4479, pp. 239–250 (2007)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wang Y., Attebuty G., Ramamurthy B.: A survey of security issues in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 8(2), 2–23 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Xiao Y., Rayi V.K., Sun B., Du X., Hu F., Galloway M.: A survey of key management schemes in wireless sensor networks. Comput. Commun. 30(11–12), 2314–2341 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zhou, L., Haas, Z.: Securing ad hoc networks. IEEE Network Magazine, pp. 24–30 November/December 1999Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zhu B., Setia S., Jajodia S., Roy S., Wang L.: Localized multicast: efficient and distributed replica detection in large-scale sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput. 9(7), 913–926 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zhu S., Setia S., Jajodia S.: LEAP+: efficient security mechanisms for large-scale distributed sensor networks. ACM Trans. Sens. Netw. 2(4), 500–528 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Security, Theory and Algorithmic ResearchInternational Institute of Information TechnologyHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations