Advertisement

Limnology

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 233–239 | Cite as

Vulnerability of a large monomictic lake (Lake Biwa) to warm winter event

  • Chikage Yoshimizu
  • Kohei Yoshiyama
  • Ichiro Tayasu
  • Tadatoshi Koitabashi
  • Toshi Nagata
Research paper

Abstract

Detailed cross-sectional temperature and oxygen distributions during winter were examined over 5 years (2003–2007) in large, warm, monomictic Lake Biwa. The distribution patterns showed year-to-year variation in the degree of spatial heterogeneity and indicated that both convective mixing and gravity currents contributed to the delivery of oxygen to the profundal zone. We encountered a warm winter in 2007, when deep-water oxygenation was delayed by more than a month relative to normal years. Data obtained during the period of oxygenation in 2007 suggest that the timing of complete oxygenation of the bottom water (or lower layers of the hypolimnion) was controlled by physical processes responsible for destruction of the weak thermal stratification near the bottom. This study revealed that Lake Biwa is sensitive to year-to-year variations in winter meteorological conditions. Specifically, the bottom environments are highly susceptible to a warm winter, especially when it follows a cold winter.

Keywords

Lake Biwa Climate warming Dissolved oxygen Vertical mixing Warm winter 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Takahiro Miyano, Yukiko Goda, Chulgoo Kim, Taichi Yokokawa, Yoko Nishimura, and Koh Maki assisted field surveys on board the research boat Hasu of CER, Kyoto University. Kiyoshi Tanaka kindly introduced relevant lake physics studies. Michio Kumagai helped coordinate this research program. This study was supported by the Shiga Prefecture, Basic Research Program (CREST) of the Japan Science and Technology Agency, and by the Global Environmental Research Fund (Fa-084) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.

References

  1. Akitomo K, Tanaka K, Kumagai M (2009a) Annual cycle of circulations in Lake Biwa, part 2: mechanisms. Limnology 10:119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akitomo K, Tanaka K, Kumagai M, Jiao C (2009b) Annual cycle of circulations in Lake Biwa, part 1: model validation. Limnology 10:105–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arhonditsis GB, Brett MT, DeGasperi CL, Schindler DE (2004) Effects of climatic variability on the thermal properties of Lake Washington. Limnol Oceanogr 49:256–270Google Scholar
  4. Boegman L, Imberger J, Ivey GN, Antenucci JP (2003) High-frequency internal waves in large stratified lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 48:895–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooks AS, Zastrow JC (2002) The potential influence of climate change on offshore primary production in Lake Michigan. J Gt Lakes Res 28:597–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coats R, Perez-Losada J, Schladow G, Richards R, Goldman C (2006) The warming of Lake Tahoe. Clim Change 76:121–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Danis PA, von Grafenstein U, Masson-Delmotte V, Planton S, Gerdeaux D, Moisselin JM (2004) Vulnerability of two European lakes in response to future climate changes. Geophys Res Lett 31:L21507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DeStasio BT, Hill DK, Kleinhans JM, Nibbelink NP, Magnuson JJ (1996) Potential effects of global climate change on small north-temperate lakes: physics, fish, and plankton. Limnol Oceanogr 41:1136–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Endoh S, Yamashita S, Kawakami M, Okumura Y (1999) Recent warming of Lake Biwa water. Jpn J Limnol 60:223–228 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  10. Fer I, Lemmin U, Thorpe SA (2002a) Winter cascading of cold water in Lake Geneva. J Geophys Res 107:3060. doi: 10.1029/2001JC000828 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fer I, Lemmin U, Thorpe SA (2002b) Observations of mixing near the sides of a deep lake in winter. Limnol Oceanogr 47:535–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hondzo M, Stefan HG (1993) Regional water temperature characteristics of lakes subjected to climate change. Clim Change 24:187–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Horie S (ed) (1984) Lake Biwa. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Horsch GM, Stefan HG (1988) Convective circulation in littoral water due to surface cooling. Limnol Oceanogr 33:1068–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Imberger J, Hamblin PF (1982) Dynamics of lakes, reservoirs, and cooling ponds. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 14:153–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  17. Kerfoot WC, Budd JW, Green SA, Cotner JB, Biddanda BA, Schwab DJ, Vanderploeg HA (2008) Doughnut in the desert: late-winter production pulse in southern Lake Michigan. Limnol Oceanogr 53:589–604Google Scholar
  18. Killworth PD (1983) Deep convection in the world ocean. Rev Geophys 21:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lehman JT (2002) Mixing patterns and plankton biomass of the St Lawrence. J Gt Lakes Res 28:583–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Livingstone DM (2003) Impact of secular climate change on the thermal structure of a large temperate central European lake. Clim Change 57:205–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Livingstone DM (2008) A change of climate provokes a change of paradigm: taking leave of two tacit assumptions about physical lake forcing. Int Rev Hydrobiol 93:404–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Magnuson JJ, Webster KE, Assel RA, Bowser CJ, Dillon PJ, Eaton JG, Evans HE, Fee EJ, Hall RI, Mortsch LR, Schindler DW, Quinn FH (1997) Potential effects of climate changes on aquatic systems: Laurentian Great Lakes and Precambrian Shield region. Hydrol Proc 11:825–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matzinger A, Schmid M, Veljanoska-Sarafiloska E, Patceva S, Guseska D, Wagner B, Müller B, Sturm M, Wüest A (2007) Eutrophication of ancient Lake Ohrid: global warming amplifies detrimental effects of increased nutrient inputs. Limnol Oceanogr 52:338–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nürnberg GK (1995) Quantifying anoxia in lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 40:1100–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Okuda S, Imberger J, Kumagai M (eds) (1995) Physical processes in a large lake: Lake Biwa, Japan. Coastal and estuarine studies 48, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  26. Okumura Y, Ohnishi Y, Endoh S (2003) Continuous measurements of dissolved oxygen and temperature in deep water of Lake Biwa. Jpn J Limnol 64:35–38 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  27. Peeters F, Livingstone DM, Goudsmit G-H, Kipfer R, Forster R (2002) Modeling 50 years of historical temperature profiles in a large central European lake. Limnol Oceanogr 47:186–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rabalais NN, Harper DE, Turner RE (2001) Responses of nekton and demersal and benthic fauna to decreasing oxygen concentrations. In: Rabalais NN, Turner RE (eds) Coastal hypoxia: consequences for living resources and ecosystems. Coastal and estuarine studies 58. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  29. Rao YR, Hawley N, Charlton MN, Schertzer WM (2008) Physical processes and hypoxia in the central basin of Lake Erie. Limnol Oceanogr 53:2007–2020Google Scholar
  30. Saggio A, Imberger J (1998) Internal wave weather in a stratified lake. Limnol Oceanogr 43:1780–1795Google Scholar
  31. Shimizu K, Imberger J, Kumagai M (2007) Horizontal structure and excitation of primary motions in a strongly stratified lake. Limnol Oceanogr 52:2641–2655Google Scholar
  32. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry, 3rd edn. WH Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Straile D, Jöhnk K, Rossknecht H (2003) Complex effects of winter warming on the physicochemical characteristics of a deep lake. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1432–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Verburg P, Hecky RE, Kling H (2003) Ecological consequences of a century of warming in Lake Tanganyika. Science 301:505–507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Weiss RF (1970) Solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and seawater. Deep Sea Res 17:721–735Google Scholar
  36. Wetzel RG (2001) Limnology: lake and river ecosystems, 3rd edn. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chikage Yoshimizu
    • 1
  • Kohei Yoshiyama
    • 2
  • Ichiro Tayasu
    • 1
  • Tadatoshi Koitabashi
    • 1
  • Toshi Nagata
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Ecological ResearchKyoto UniversityShigaJapan
  2. 2.Ocean Research InstituteThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations