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Limnology

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 63–70 | Cite as

Multilayer biological structure and mixing in the upper water column of Lake Biwa during summer 2008

  • Hidekatsu YamazakiEmail author
  • Hikaru Honma
  • Takeyoshi Nagai
  • Mark J. Doubell
  • Kazuo Amakasu
  • Michio Kumagai
Research paper

Abstract

We carried out a 24-h station experiment at Lake Biwa (Japan) to measure mixing events and concurrent biological signals using a free-fall microstructure profiler (TurboMAP-L), conventional hydrographic measurement device (F-probe), and the Tracker acoustic profiling system (TAPS). A clearly defined three-layer physical system was observed. Two layers were actively mixed: the surface-mixed layer and the subsurface-mixed layer. Both winds and night-time convection create the surface-mixed layer, and vertical shear due to a counterclockwise gyre maintains turbulence in the subsurface mixing layer. A strongly stratified layer between these two mixing layers is almost turbulence free, so no material flux is expected. A local oxygen maximum layer, a local oxygen minimum layer, and layers of increased chlorophyll and zooplankton abundance are all located in this strongly stratified layer. The data show the intricate influence of physical processes on the structure of biological systems and their combined influence on biogeochemical and trophic transfers in aquatic systems.

Keywords

Phytoplankton Oxygen Stratification Mixing Turbulence 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Global Environment Research Fund (Fa-084) by the Ministry of the Environment, and partially supported by a Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (20244079) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. M.J. Doubell was supported by a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science postdoctoral fellowship (JSPS-07770). We are grateful for the field assistance of the crews of R/V Hakken at LBERI.

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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hidekatsu Yamazaki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hikaru Honma
    • 1
  • Takeyoshi Nagai
    • 1
  • Mark J. Doubell
    • 1
  • Kazuo Amakasu
    • 2
  • Michio Kumagai
    • 3
  1. 1.Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Department of Ocean SciencesTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Research Center for Advanced Science and TechnologyTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Lake Biwa Environmental Research InstituteŌtsuJapan

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