, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 63–70 | Cite as

Multilayer biological structure and mixing in the upper water column of Lake Biwa during summer 2008

  • Hidekatsu YamazakiEmail author
  • Hikaru Honma
  • Takeyoshi Nagai
  • Mark J. Doubell
  • Kazuo Amakasu
  • Michio Kumagai
Research paper


We carried out a 24-h station experiment at Lake Biwa (Japan) to measure mixing events and concurrent biological signals using a free-fall microstructure profiler (TurboMAP-L), conventional hydrographic measurement device (F-probe), and the Tracker acoustic profiling system (TAPS). A clearly defined three-layer physical system was observed. Two layers were actively mixed: the surface-mixed layer and the subsurface-mixed layer. Both winds and night-time convection create the surface-mixed layer, and vertical shear due to a counterclockwise gyre maintains turbulence in the subsurface mixing layer. A strongly stratified layer between these two mixing layers is almost turbulence free, so no material flux is expected. A local oxygen maximum layer, a local oxygen minimum layer, and layers of increased chlorophyll and zooplankton abundance are all located in this strongly stratified layer. The data show the intricate influence of physical processes on the structure of biological systems and their combined influence on biogeochemical and trophic transfers in aquatic systems.


Phytoplankton Oxygen Stratification Mixing Turbulence 



This work was supported by the Global Environment Research Fund (Fa-084) by the Ministry of the Environment, and partially supported by a Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (20244079) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. M.J. Doubell was supported by a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science postdoctoral fellowship (JSPS-07770). We are grateful for the field assistance of the crews of R/V Hakken at LBERI.


  1. Dekshenieks MM, Donaghay PL, Sullivan JM, Rines JEB, Osborn TR, Twardowski MS (2001) Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 223:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Doubell MJ, Yamazaki H, Li H, Kokubu Y (2009) An advanced laser based fluorescence microstructure profiler (TurboMAP-L) for measuring bio-physical coupling in aquatic system. J Plankton Res (in press)Google Scholar
  3. Gargett A, Osborn TR, Nasmyth PW (1984) Local isotropy and the decay of turbulence in a stratified fluid. J Fluid Mech 144:231–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Greenlaw CF, Johnson RK (1983) Multiple-frequency acoustical estimation. Biol Oceanogr 2:227–252Google Scholar
  5. Holliday DV (1977) Extracting bio-physical information from the acoustic signature of marine organisms. In: Andersen NR, Zahuranec BJ (eds) Oceanic sound scattering prediction. Plenum Press, New York, pp 619–624Google Scholar
  6. Holliday DV (1992) Zooplankton acoustics. In: Desai BN (ed) Oceanography of the Indian Ocean. Oxford-IBH, New Delhi, pp 733–740Google Scholar
  7. Holliday DV, Stanton TK (2005) Active acoustical assessment of plankton and micronekton. In: Medwin H (ed) Sound in the sea. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 355–373Google Scholar
  8. Itsweire EL, Koseff JR, Briggs DA, Ferziger JH (1993) Turbulence in stratified shear flows: implications for interpreting shear-induced mixing in the ocean. J Phys Oceanogr 23:1508–1522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kantha LH, Clayson CA (2000) Small scale processes in geophysical fluid flows, Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Kumagai M, Asada Y, Nakano S (1998) Gyres measured by ADCP in Lake Biwa. In: Imberger J (ed) Physical processes in lakes and oceans. American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., pp 199–208Google Scholar
  11. Lawson CL, Hanson RJ (1974) Solving least squares problems. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  12. Matthews R, DeLuna E (2008) Metalimnetic oxygen and ammonium maxima in Lake Whatcom, Washington (USA). Northwest Sci 82:18–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mitchell SF, Burns CW (1979) Oxygen consumption in the epilimnia and hypolimnia of two eutrophic, warm-monomictic lakes. N.Z. J Mar Freshw Res 13:427–441Google Scholar
  14. Nagai T, Yamazaki H, Nagashima H, Kantha LH (2005) Field and numerical study of entrainment laws for surface mixed layer. Deep Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr 52:1109–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Oakey NS (1982) Determination of the rate of dissipation of turbulent energy from simultaneous temperature and velocity shear microstructure measurements. J Phys Oceanogr 12:256–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Osborn T (1974) Vertical profiling of velocity microstructure. J Phys Oceanogr 4:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Osborn T (1980) Estimates of the local rate of vertical diffusion from dissipation measurements. J Phys Oceanogr 10:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rimmer A, Aota Y, Kumagai M, Werner E (2005) Chemical stratification in thermally stratified lakes: a chloride mass balance model. Limnol Oceanogr 50:147–157Google Scholar
  19. Saggio S, Imberger J (1998) Internal wave weather in a stratified lake. Limnol Oceanogr 43:1780–1795Google Scholar
  20. Shapiro J (1960) The cause of a metalimnetic minimum of dissolved oxygen. Limnol Oceanogr 5:216–227Google Scholar
  21. Umlauf L, Lemmin U (2005) Interbasin exchange and mixing in the hypolimnion of a large lake: the role of long internal waves. Limnol Oceanogr 50:1601–1611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vázquez G, Favila M, Madrigal R, Montes del Olmo C, Batlanas A, Angel Bravo M (2004) Limnology of crater lakes in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Hydrobiologia 523:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wetzel RG (2001) Limnology lake and river ecosystems, Elsevier, London, 1006 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Wolk F, Yamazaki H, Seuront L, Lueck RG (2002) A new free-fall profiler for measuring bio-physical microstructure. J Atmos Ocean Tech 19:780–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yamazaki H (1990) Stratified turbulence near a critical dissipation rate. J Phys Oceanogr 20:1583–1598CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hidekatsu Yamazaki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hikaru Honma
    • 1
  • Takeyoshi Nagai
    • 1
  • Mark J. Doubell
    • 1
  • Kazuo Amakasu
    • 2
  • Michio Kumagai
    • 3
  1. 1.Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Department of Ocean SciencesTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Research Center for Advanced Science and TechnologyTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Lake Biwa Environmental Research InstituteŌtsuJapan

Personalised recommendations