, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 33–45 | Cite as

Influences of forested watershed conditions on fluctuations in stream water temperature with special reference to watershed area and forest type

  • Luki Subehi
  • Takehiko Fukushima
  • Yuichi Onda
  • Shigeru Mizugaki
  • Takashi Gomi
  • Tomomi Terajima
  • Ken’ichirou Kosugi
  • Shinya Hiramatsu
  • Hikaru Kitahara
  • Koichiro Kuraji
  • Noriatsu Ozaki
Research paper


In order to gain insight into the effect of watershed conditions on fluctuations in stream water temperature, we statistically analyzed water temperature data for 1 year, using root mean square (Rms) and harmonic (A Amplitude, φ delay time) methods. The average values of delay time (days) between air and water temperatures (Ta and Tw) of small (< 0.5 ha), medium (0.5–100 ha) and large (> 100 ha) watersheds were 4.53 ± 0.82 days, 11.83 ± 3.88 days and 4.45 ± 1.52 days, respectively. Fluctuations in stream water temperature expressed by Rms (Rms Tw/Rms Ta) and harmonic methods (A −Tw/A −Ta) in the medium-sized watersheds with moderate slope gradients were 0.37 ± 0.09 and 0.56 ± 0.14, respectively. These values increased in the larger watersheds with low slope gradients, including five large rivers covered by various landscapes, with their averages of 0.53 ± 0.09 and 0.78 ± 0.09, respectively, indicating the influences of solar radiation and heat transfer processes. In the smaller watersheds with high slope gradients, these values were 0.73 ± 0.02 and 0.87 ± 0.03, respectively, suggesting that shorter passage time affected water temperatures. With respect to forest type, these values at badly managed hinoki forest watersheds (0.45 ± 0.04 and 0.73 ± 0.07) were larger than those at broadleaf forest (0.34 ± 0.04 and 0.51 ± 0.12) and well-managed hinoki forest (0.33 ± 0.04 and 0.51 ± 0.07) watersheds, indicating different proportions of flow paths.


Stream water temperature fluctuation Forested watershed Root mean square Harmonic analysis 


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luki Subehi
    • 1
  • Takehiko Fukushima
    • 1
  • Yuichi Onda
    • 1
  • Shigeru Mizugaki
    • 1
  • Takashi Gomi
    • 2
  • Tomomi Terajima
    • 3
  • Ken’ichirou Kosugi
    • 4
  • Shinya Hiramatsu
    • 5
  • Hikaru Kitahara
    • 5
  • Koichiro Kuraji
    • 6
  • Noriatsu Ozaki
    • 7
  1. 1.Graduate School of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of AgricultureTokyo University of Agriculture and TechnologyTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Disaster Prevention Research InstituteKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of AgricultureShinshu UniversityNaganoJapan
  6. 6.Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesUniversity of TokyoAichiJapan
  7. 7.Faculty of EngineeringGraduate School of Hiroshima UniversityHiroshimaJapan

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