, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 101–115 | Cite as

Three-dimensional fluorescence as a tool for investigating the dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Lake Biwa watershed

  • Khan M. G. MostofaEmail author
  • Takahito Yoshioka
  • Eiichi Konohira
  • Eiichiro Tanoue
  • Kazuhide Hayakawa
  • Mikio Takahashi


Quantitative and qualitative characterizations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were carried out at the watershed level in central Japan by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and the three-dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3-D EEM). DOC concentration was low (mean 37 ± 19 µM C) in the upstream waters, whereas, in general, it increased toward the downstream areas (mean 92 ± 47 µM C). Significant variations in DOC concentration were detected among rivers and channels. DOC concentration in the epilimnion of Lake Biwa increased during the summer period and decreased during the winter period. The lake hypolimnion has lower DOC concentration (mean 87 ± 7 µM C) compared with the epilimnion (107 ± 15 µM C). Fulvic acid (FA)-like substances in the DOM were directly characterized by 3-D EEM. The fluorescence peak for upstream DOM was found in regions with longer wavelengths (excitation/emission 386 ± 6/476 ± 5 nm) compared with downstream and lake DOM (351 ± 12/446 ± 15 nm and 341 ± 6/434 ± 6 nm, respectively). The DOC concentration is correlated with fluorescence peak intensity of FA-like substances in DOM in river waters. Such a relationship was not found in lake DOM. A blueshift of the fluorescence peak from upstream to lake DOM was observed. A decrease in fluorescence intensities was also detected during the summer period. These results may suggest that the degradation of FA-like substances in DOM occurs from natural solar irradiation. Protein-like fluorescence was significantly detected in the lake epilimnion during the summer period. A linear relationship between DOC concentration and protein-like fluorescence indicated that an autochthonous input of DOM gave rise to the increase in DOC concentration in the lake epilimnion during the summer. These results may suggest that the 3-D EEM can be used as a tool for the investigation of DOM dynamics at the watershed level with concurrent measurement of DOC concentration and the fluorescence properties of fulvic acid-like and protein-like substances.

Key words

Dissolved organic matter Fulvic acid-like fluorescence Protein-like fluorescence Fluorescence intensity Lake Biwa 


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khan M. G. Mostofa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Takahito Yoshioka
    • 1
  • Eiichi Konohira
    • 1
  • Eiichiro Tanoue
    • 1
  • Kazuhide Hayakawa
    • 2
  • Mikio Takahashi
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Hydrospheric–Atmospheric SciencesNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Lake Biwa Research InstituteOhtsuJapan

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