Validity and responsiveness of the EQ-5D and the KIDSCREEN-10 in children with ADHD
- First Online:
- 351 Downloads
The aim of our study is to compare the validity of a generic preference-based Quality of Life (QoL) instrument for adults to that of a generic child-specific QoL instrument in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
EQ-5D and KIDSCREEN-10 data were collected using a questionnaire survey performed among parents with a child or adolescent diagnosed with ADHD. The measurements were compared to assess (dis)similarities of the instruments’ constructs and responsiveness to different health states. Principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was used to identify factors underlying the constructs of both instruments. Instruments’ index scores of respondents with different treatment and comorbidity profiles were compared using Student’s t tests. Cohen’s effect sizes were calculated for an indirect comparison of the instruments’ responsiveness and discriminating ability. Separate analyses were performed in children aged 8–12 and 13–18 years.
A strong relation was found between the EQ-5D and KIDSCREEN-10 index scores. However correlations between EQ-5D and KIDSCREEN-10 items were moderate or low. The PCA identified five separate factors of quality of life. A physical and a mental factor included a combination of three EQ-5D dimensions and six KIDSCREEN-10 items; the remaining EQ-5D and KIDSCREEN-10 items constituted complementary factors without any overlap between the separate instruments. Scores of both instruments differed significantly according to respondents’ response to treatment and comorbidity profile. Cohen’s effect sizes indicated comparable results of the instruments’ responsiveness and discriminative ability.
The results highlight that the instruments measure different constructs of QoL in children with ADHD. Despite this, the analyses showed comparable responsiveness and discriminative ability of the instruments. These results suggest that for economic evaluations, the EQ-5D is an appropriate and valid instrument for measuring QoL in children.
KeywordsHealth-related quality of life Discriminative ability Responsiveness Validity
- 6.Ravens-Sieberer, U., Auquier, P., Erhart, M., Gosch, A., Rajmil, L., Bruil, J., Power, M., Duer, W., Cloetta, B., Czemy, L., Mazur, J., Czimbalmos, A., Tountas, Y., Hagquist, C., Kilroe, J.: European KIDSCREEN Group: The KIDSCREEN-27 quality of life measure for children and adolescents: psychometric results from a cross-cultural survey in 13 European countries. Qual Life Res. 16(8), 1347–1356 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Ravens-Sieberer, U., Gosch, A., Rajmil, L., Erhart, M., Bruil, J., Power, M., Duer, W., Auquier, P., Cloetta, B., Czemy, L., Mazur, J., Czimbalmos, A., Tountas, Y., Hagquist, C., Kilroe, J., Group, K.: The KIDSCREEN-52 quality of life measure for children and adolescents: psychometric results from a cross-cultural survey in 13 European countries. Value Health 11(4), 645–658 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Ravens-Sieberer, U., Erhart, M., Rajmil, L., Herdman, M., Auquier, P., Bruil, J., Power, M., Duer, W., Abel, T., Czemy, L., Mazur, J., Czimbalmos, A., Tountas, Y., Hagquist, C., Kilroe, J.: European KIDSCREEN group: reliability, construct and criterion validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 score: a short measure for children and adolescents’ well-being and health-related quality of life. Qual Life Res. 19(10), 1487–1500 (2010)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Fekkes, M., Theunissen, N.C., Brugman, E., Veen, S., Verrips, E.G., Koopman, H.M., Vogels, T., Wit, J.M., Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.: Development and psychometric evaluation of the TAPQOL: a health-related quality of life instrument for 1-5-year-old children. Qual Life Res. 9(8), 961–972 (2000)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Varni, J.W., Limbers, C.A., Burwinkle, T.M.: How young can children reliably and validly self-report their health-related quality of life? An analysis of 8,591 children across age subgroups with the PedsQL 4.0 generic core scales. Health Qual Life Outcomes 5, 1 (2007)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Varni, J.W., Limbers, C.A., Neighbors, K., Schulz, K., Lieu, J.E., Heffer, R.W., Tuzinkiewicz, K., Mangione-Smith, R., Zimmerman, J.J., Alonso, E.M.: The PedsQL infant scales: feasibility, internal consistency reliability, and validity in healthy and ill infants. Qual Life Res. 20(1), 45–55 (2011)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Ravens-Sieberer, U., Wille, N., Badia, X., Bonsel, G., Burstrom, K., Cavrini, G., Devlin, N., Egmar, A.C., Gusi, N., Herdman, M., Jelsma, J., Kind, P., Olivares, P.R., Scalone, L., Greiner, W.: Feasibility, reliability, and validity of the EQ-5D-Y: results from a multinational study. Qual Life Res. 19(6), 887–897 (2010)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Wille, N., Badia, X., Bonsel, G., Burstrom, K., Cavrini, G., Devlin, N., Egmar, A.C., Greiner, W., Gusi, N., Herdman, M., Jelsma, J., Kind, P., Scalone, L., Ravens-Sieberer, U.: Development of the EQ-5D-Y: a child-friendly version of the EQ-5D. Qual Life Res. 19(6), 875–886 (2010)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Ratcliffe, J., Couzner, L., Flynn, T., Sawyer, M., Stevens, K., Brazier, J., Burgess, L.: Valuing child health utility 9D health states with a young adolescent sample: a feasibility study to compare best-worst scaling discrete-choice experiment, standard gamble and time trade-off methods. Appl Health Econ Health Policy 9(1), 15–27 (2011)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Gillberg, C., Gillberg, I.C., Rasmussen, P., Kadesjo, B., Soderstrom, H., Rastam, M., Johnson, M., Rothenberger, A., Niklasson, L.: Co-existing disorders in ADHD: implications for diagnosis and intervention. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatr 13(Suppl 1), I80–I92 (2004)Google Scholar
- 23.Nunnally, J.C., Bernstein, I.H.: Psychometric theory, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York (1994)Google Scholar
- 25.Ravens-Sieberer U, the KIDSCREEN Europe Group: The KIDSCREEN questionnaire- Quality of life questionnaires for children and adolescents-handbook. Papst Science Publisher, Lengerich (2006)Google Scholar
- 26.Busschbach J, Rabin R, de Charro F (Eds): Proceedings of the 24the scientific plenary meeting of the EuroQol group pp. 153–165 (2009)Google Scholar
- 28.Anonymous The World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL): position paper from the World Health Organization. Soc Sci Med 41(10):1403–1409 (1995)Google Scholar
- 34.Klaassen, R.J., Krahn, M., Gaboury, I., Hughes, J., Anderson, R., Grundy, P., Ali, S.K., Jardine, L., Abla, O., Silva, M., Barnard, D., Cappelli, M.: Evaluating the ability to detect change of health-related quality of life in children with Hodgkin disease. Cancer 116(6), 1608–1614 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Danckaerts, M., Sonuga-Barke, E.J., Banaschewski, T., Buitelaar, J., Dopfner, M., Hollis, C., Santosh, P., Rothenberger, A., Sergeant, J., Steinhausen, H.C., Taylor, E., Zuddas, A., Coghill, D.: The quality of life of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatr. 19(2), 83–105 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar