The European Journal of Health Economics

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 661–673 | Cite as

Estimating the social cost of respiratory cancer cases attributable to occupational exposures in France

  • Hassan SerrierEmail author
  • Hélène Sultan-Taieb
  • Danièle Luce
  • Sophie Bejean
Original Paper



The objective of this article was to estimate the social cost of respiratory cancer cases attributable to occupational risk factors in France in 2010.


According to the attributable fraction method and based on available epidemiological data from the literature, we estimated the number of respiratory cancer cases due to each identified risk factor. We used the cost-of-illness method with a prevalence-based approach. We took into account the direct and indirect costs. We estimated the cost of production losses due to morbidity (absenteeism and presenteeism) and mortality costs (years of production losses) in the market and nonmarket spheres.


The social cost of lung, larynx, sinonasal and mesothelioma cancer caused by exposure to asbestos, chromium, diesel engine exhaust, paint, crystalline silica, wood and leather dust in France in 2010 were estimated at between 917 and 2,181 million euros. Between 795 and 2,011 million euros (87–92 %) of total costs were due to lung cancer alone. Asbestos was by far the risk factor representing the greatest cost to French society in 2010 at between 531 and 1,538 million euros (58–71 %), ahead of diesel engine exhaust, representing an estimated social cost of between 233 and 336 million euros, and crystalline silica (119–229 million euros). Indirect costs represented about 66 % of total costs.


Our assessment shows the magnitude of the economic impact of occupational respiratory cancers. It allows comparisons between countries and provides valuable information for policy-makers responsible for defining public health priorities.


Cost Occupational health Respiratory tract neoplasms Asbestos Cost of illness 

JEL Classification

D61 H51 H55 I18 J24 J28 J32 



We express our gratitude to the Institut national du cancer (INCA) and the Conseil régional de Bourgogne for financing the thesis of Hassan Serrier on which this study is largely based.


  1. 1.
    Kogevinas, M., Pearce, N., Susser, M., Boffetta, P.: Social inequalities and cancer. IARC Sci. Publ. 138, 1–15 (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Imbernon, E.: Quelle place pour les risques professionnels dans la santé publique? Sante. Publique. 20(3), S9–S17 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barnay, T., Briard, K.: Carrière incomplète et départ en retraite : Une estimation de l’incidence de l’état de santé à partir de données individuelles. Revue économique 60(2), 345–363 (2009). Paris. 1950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Debrand, T., Lengagne, P.: Working conditions and health of European older workers. Institut de Recherche et de Documentation en Économie de la Santé, Paris (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stokes, M.E., Ishak, J., Proskorovsky, I., Black, L.K., Huang, Y.: Lifetime economic burden of prostate cancer. BMC Health Servi. Res. 11, 349 (2011). doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-349 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berkowitz, N., Gupta, S., Silberman, G.: Estimates of the lifetime direct costs of treatment for metastatic breast cancer. Value Health 3(1), 23–30 (2000). doi: 10.1046/j.1524-4733.2000.31003.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lamerato, L., Havstad, S., Gandhi, S., Jones, D., Nathanson, D.: Economic burden associated with breast cancer recurrence: findings from a retrospective analysis of health system data. Cancer 106(9), 1875–1882 (2006). doi: 10.1002/cncr.21824 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Weissflog, D., Matthys, H., Hasse, J., Virchow Jr, J.C.: Epidemiology and costs of lung cancer in Germany. Pneumologie Stuttgart, Germany 55(7), 333–338 (2001). doi: 10.1055/s-2001-15618 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rao, S., Kubisiak, J., Gilden, D.: Cost of illness associated with metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 83(1), 25–32 (2004). doi: 10.1023/b:brea.0000010689.55559.06 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sorensen, S.V., Goh, J.W., Pan, F., Chen, C., Yardley, D., Martin, M., Knopf, K., Benedict, A., Giorgetti, C., Iyer, S.: Incidence-based cost-of-illness model for metastatic breast cancer in the United States. Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care 28(1), 12–21 (2012). doi: 10.1017/s026646231100064x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Song, X., Zhao, Z., Barber, B., Gregory, C., Cao, Z., Gao, S.: Cost of illness in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. J. Medical Econ. 14(1), 1–9 (2011). doi: 10.3111/13696998.2010.536870 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thom, T.J.: Economic costs of neoplasms, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes in the United States. In vivo 10(2), 255–259 (1996)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fahs, M.C., Markowitz, S.B., Leigh, J.P., Shin, C.G., Landrigan, P.J.: A national estimate of the cost of occupationally related disease in 1992. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 837, 440–455 (1997)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leigh, J.P., Yasmeen, S., Miller, T.R.: Medical costs of fourteen occupational illnesses in the United States in 1999. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 29(4), 304–313 (2003)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leigh, J.P.: Economic burden of occupational injury and illness in the United States. Milbank Q. 89(4), 728–772 (2011)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gomez, Garcia: M., Urbanos Garrido, R., Castaneda Lopez, R., Lopez Menduina, P.: [Direct health care costs of lung and bladder cancer attributable to work. Spain, 2008]. Revista espanola de salud publica 86(2), 127–138 (2012). doi: 10.1590/s1135-57272012000200002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Biddle, J., Roberts, K., Rosenman, K.D., Welch, E.M.: What percentage of workers with work-related illnesses receive workers’ compensation benefits? J. Occup. Environ. Med. 40(4), 325–331 (1998)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leigh, J.P., Robbins, J.A.: Occupational disease and workers’ compensation: coverage, costs, and consequences. Milbank Q. 82(4), 689–721 (2004). doi: 10.1111/j.0887-378X.2004.00328.x PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bonauto, D.K., Smith, C.K., Adams, D.A., Fan, Z.J., Silverstein, B.A., Foley, M.P.: Language preference and non-traumatic low back disorders in Washington State workers’ compensation. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53(2), 204–215 (2010). doi: 10.1002/ajim.20740 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fayad, R., Nuwayhid, I., Tamim, H., Kassak, K., Khogali, M.: Cost of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon. Bull. World Health Organ. 81(7), 509–516 (2003)PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Del Sol, M., Turquet, P.: La branche « accidents du travail et maladies professionnelles » ou les difficultés de socialisation du risque professionnel. Econ. Appl. 60(1), 153–180 (2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kasbi Benassouli, V., Imbernon, E., Iwatsubo, Y., Buisson, C., Goldberg, M.: Confrontation des cancérogènes avérés en milieu de travail et des tableaux de maladies professionnelles. In. Institut de veille sanitaire, (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Siemiatycki, J., Richardson, L., Straif, K., Latreille, B., Lakhani, R., Campbell, S., Rousseau, M.C., Boffetta, P.: Listing occupational carcinogens. Environ. Health Perspect. 112(15), 1447–1459 (2004)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fingerhut, M., Driscoll, T., Nelson, D.I., Concha-Barrientos, M., Punnett, L., Pruss-Ustin, A., Steenland, K., Leigh, J., Corvalan, C.: Contribution of occupational risk factors to the global burden of disease: a summary of findings. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 1(suppl), 59–61 (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nelson, D.I., Concha-Barrientos, M., Driscoll, T., Steenland, K., Fingerhut, M., Punnett, L., Pruss-Ustun, A., Leigh, J., Corvalan, C.: The global burden of selected occupational diseases and injury risks: methodology and summary. Am. J. Ind. Med. 48(6), 400–418 (2005)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Driscoll, T., Takala, J., Steenland, K., Corvalan, C., Fingerhut, M.: Review of estimates of the global burden of injury and illness due to occupational exposures. Am. J. Ind. Med. 48(6), 491–502 (2005)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Steenland, K., Burnett, C., Lalich, N., Ward, E., Hurrell, J.: Dying for work: the magnitude of US mortality from selected causes of death associated with occupation. Am. J. Ind. Med. 43(5), 461–482 (2003)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nurminen, M., Karjalainen, A.: Epidemiologic estimate of the proportion of fatalities related to occupational factors in Finland. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 27(3), 161–213 (2001)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    t’Mannetje, A., Pearce, N.: Quantitative estimates of work-related death, disease and injury in New Zealand. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 31(4), 266–276 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Imbernon, E., Goldberg, M., Marchand J, L., Gilg Soit Ilg, A., Carton, M.: Estimation du nombre de cas de cancers attribuables à des facteurs professionnels. Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail 64(6) (2003)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Albin, M., Magnani, C., Krstev, S., Rapiti, E., Shefer, I.: Asbestos and cancer: an overview of current trends in Europe. Environ. Health Perspect. 107(Suppl 2), 289–298 (1999)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Autier, P., Boffetta, P., Boniol, M., Boyle, P., Ferlay, J., Aurengo, A., Masse, R., De Thé, G., Monier, R., Tubiana, M., Valleron, A.J., Hill, C.: Attributable causes of cancer in France in the year 2000. International Agency for Research on Cancer, (2007) p 177Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bejean, S., Sultan-Taïeb, H.: Modeling the economic burden of diseases imputable to stress at work. Eur J Health Econ 50(1), 16–23 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Leigh, J.P., Markowitz, S.B., Fahs, M., Shin, C., Landrigan, P.J.: Occupational injury and illness in the United States. Estimates of costs, morbidity, and mortality. Arch. Intern. Med. 157(14), 1557–1568 (1997)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Leigh, J.P., Cone, J.E., Harrison, R.: Costs of occupational injuries and illnesses in California. Prev. Med. 32(5), 393–406 (2001)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Leigh, J.P.: Expanding research on the economics of occupational health. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 32(1), 1–4 (2006)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Drummond, M., Sculpher, M., Torrance, G.: Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes, vol. 3. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2005)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Drummond, M.: Cost-of-illness studies: a major headache? pharmaco Econ. 2(1), 1–4 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goldberg, M., Imbernon, E., Rolland, P., Gilg Soit Ilg, A., Saves, M., de Quillacq, A., Frenay, C., Chamming’s, S., Arveux, P., Boutin, C., Launoy, G., Pairon, J.C., Astoul, P., Galateau-Salle, F., Brochard, P.: The French national mesothelioma surveillance program. Occup. Environ. Med. 63(6), 390–395 (2006). doi: 10.1136/oem.2005.023200 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lacourt, A., Brochard, P., Houot, M.: Présentation d’une matrice emplois-expositions aux fibres d’amiante Quelques applications à un échantillon de population en France. In., p. 6p. Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint-Maurice, (2010)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pilorget, C., Dananche, B., Luce, D., Fevotte, J.: Éléments techniques sur l’exposition professionnelle aux carburants et solvants pétroliers. Matrice emplois-expositions aux carburants et solvants pétroliers. Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint-Maurice, (2007) p. 21Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Luce, D., Fevotte, J., Institut de Veille Sanitaire. Saint-Maurice, FRA: Le programme Matgéné. Matrices emplois-expositions en population générale. État d’avancement-septembre 2005. Enquête. Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (2006)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Delabre, L., Pilorget, C., Garras, L., Fevotte, J., Groupe de travail Matgéné, F.R.A.: Éléments techniques sur l’exposition professionnelle aux poussières alvéolaires de silice cristalline libre. Présentation d’une matrice emplois-expositions aux poussières alvéolaires de silice cristalline libre. Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (2010)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Arnaudo, B., Floury, M.C., Guignon, N., Magaud-Camus, I., Sandret, N., Vinck, L., Waltisperger, D.: Les expositions aux risques professionnels, les produits chimiques : résultats SUMER 2003. In. DARES document d’études n°118, (2006)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    DADS: Déclaration Annuelle de Données Sociales - postes et salariés - 2008. Available from: Accessed 2012
  46. 46.
    Invs, Inca: Projection de l’incidence et de la mortalité par cancer en France en 2010. Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (2010)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    CEPIDC: Interrogation des données sur les causes de décès de 1979 à 2010. Centre d’Épidémiologie sur les Causes Médicales de Décès. Available from: Accessed 2012
  48. 48.
    Colonna, M., Danzon, A., Delafosse, P., Mitton, N., Bara, S., Bouvier, A.M., Ganry, O., Guizard, A.V., Launoy, G., Molinie, F., Sauleau, E.A., Schvartz, C., Velten, M., Grosclaude, P., Tretarre, B.: Cancer prevalence in France: time trend, situation in 2002 and extrapolation to 2012. Eur. J. Cancer 44(1), 115–122 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2007.10.022 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Molinier, L., Combescure, C., Chouaid, C., Daures, J.P., Housset, B., Fabre, D., Grand, A., Vergnenegre, A.: Cost of lung cancer: a methodological review. In: Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 24. vol. 7, pp. 651–659. New Zealand (2006)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tarricone, R.: Cost-of-illness analysis. What room in health economics? Health Policy 77(1), 51–63 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2005.07.016 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Amalric, F.: Analyse économique des coûts du cancer en France. Impact sur la qualité de vie, prévention, dépistage, soins, recherche. In. Institut National du Cancer, Boulogne-Billancourt, (2007)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Borella, L., Peuvrel, P., Sauvage, M., Maraninchi, D., Philip, T.: Un essai d’exploitation de la base PMSI nationale pour évaluer le volume et les modes de prise en charge du cancer en secteur hospitalier non lucratif. Revue d’épidémiologie et de santé publique 48(1), 53–70 (2000)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Borella, L., Finkel, S., Crapeau, N., Peuvrel, P., Sauvage, M., Perrier, L., Lepage, E., Villeminot, J., Garrigues, B.: Volume et coût de la prise en charge hospitalière du cancer en France en 1999. Bull. Cancer 89(9), 809–821 (2002)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    ATIH: Principaux résultats issus des données de coûts ENCC 2011. In. Agence Technique de l’Information sur l’Hospitalisation, (2013)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jegou, J.J.: Rapport d’information fait au nom de la commission des finances sur les missions d’intérêt général et d’aide à la contractualisation (MIGAC). In., p. 63. Sénat-Session ordinaire 2010–2011, (2010)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mourlat, B., Gathion, S., Nowak, F., Hoog Labouret, N., Institut National du Cancer. Paris, FRA.: Situation de la chimiothérapie des cancers en 2010. In., p. 38p. Inca, Boulogne-Billancourt, (2010)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Borella, L., Paraponaris, A.: Reconstitution macro-économique des dépenses, suivi micro-économique des coûts du cancer du sein. Revue d’épidémiologie et de santé publique 50(6), 581–592 (2002)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schultz, A.B., Edington, D.W.: Employee health and presenteeism: a systematic review. J. Occup. Rehabil. 17(3), 547–579 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s10926-007-9096-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Malavolti, L., Mermillod, C., Bataille, P., Compagnon, C., Moatti, J.-P.: Situation professionnelle et difficultés économiques des patients atteints d’un cancer deux ans après le diagnostic. In: Résultats, D.E.E. (ed.). Direction de la recherche, des études, de l’évaluation et des statistiques, (2006)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rice, D.P.: Estimating the cost of illness. Am. J. Public Health 57(3), 424–440 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Koopmanschap, M.A., van Ineveld, B.M.: Towards a new approach for estimating indirect costs of disease. Social science and medicine (1982) 34(9), 1005–1010 (1992)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brouwer, W.B., Koopmanschap, M.A.: The friction-cost method: replacement for nothing and leisure for free? In: Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 23. vol. 2, pp. 105–111. New Zealand (2005)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Koopmanschap, M.A., Rutten, F.F., van Ineveld, B.M., van Roijen, L.: The friction cost method for measuring indirect costs of disease. In: J Health Econ, vol. 14. vol. 2, pp. 171–189. Netherlands (1995)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Oliva, J., Lobo, F., Lopez-Bastida, J., Zozaya, N., Romay, R.: Indirect costs of cervical and breast cancers in Spain. Eur J Health Econ 6(4), 309–313 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s10198-005-0303-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Goetzel, R.Z., Long, S.R., Ozminkowski, R.J., Hawkins, K., Wang, S., Lynch, W.: Health, absence, disability, and presenteeism cost estimates of certain physical and mental health conditions affecting US employers. In: J Occup Environ Med, vol. 46. vol. 4, pp. 398-412. United States (2004)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Roy, D.: La contribution du travail domestique au bien-être matériel des ménages : une quantification à partir de l’enquête Emploi du Temps. In. Direction des Statistiques Démographiques et Sociales de l’INSEE, (2011)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Roy, D.: Le travail domestique : 60 milliards d’heures en 2010. In: INSEE Première. INSEE, (2012)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cnav: Les principaux chiffres du régime général au 31 décembre 2010. In. Direction Statistique et Prospection de la Caisse Nationale d’Assurance Vieillesse, (2011)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chouaid, C., Molinier, L., Combescure, C., Daures, J.P., Housset, B., Vergnenegre, A.: Economics of the clinical management of lung cancer in France: an analysis using a Markov model. In: Br J Cancer, vol. 90. vol. 2, pp. 397–402. England (2004)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Vergnenègre, A., Molinier, L., Combescure, C., Daurès, J.P., Housset, B., Chouaïd, C.: The cost of lung cancer management in France from the payor’s perspective. Dis. Manag. Health Outcomes 14(1), 55–67 (2006). doi: 10.2165/00115677-200614010-00007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Weill, A., Chinaud, F., Vallier, N., Bourrel, R., Suarez, C., Cayla, M., Roussel, H., Salanave, B., Girot, J.Y., Ricordeau, P., Fender, P.: Allemand A (2005) Fréquence et coûts des trente affections de longue durée de la région Midi-Pyrénées, année 2003. Revue médicale de l’assurance maladie 36(4), 273–287 (2003)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Goeree, R., O’Brien, B.J., Blackhouse, G., Agro, K., Goering, P.: The valuation of productivity costs due to premature mortality: a comparison of the human-capital and friction-cost methods for schizophrenia. Can. J. Psychiatry 44(5), 455–463 (1999)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Steenland, K., Loomis, D., Shy, C., Simonsen, N.: Review of occupational lung carcinogens. Am. J. Ind. Med. 29(5), 474–490 (1996). doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0274(199605)29:5<474:aid-ajim6>;2-m PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Armstrong, B., Hutchinson, E., Unwin, J., Fletcher, T.: Lung cancer risk after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review and meta-analysis. Environ. Health Perspect. 112(9), 970–978 (2004)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bruske-Hohlfeld, I., Mohner, M., Pohlabeln, H., Ahrens, W., Bolm-Audorff, U., Kreienbrock, L., Kreuzer, M., Jahn, I., Wichmann, H.E., Jockel, K.H.: Occupational lung cancer risk for men in Germany: results from a pooled case-control study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 151(4), 384–395 (2000)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dionne, G., Lebeau, M.: Le calcul de la valeur statistique d’une vie humaine. In: Cahiers de recherche. 1041, CIRPEE, (2010)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Demers, P.A., Boffetta, P., Kogevinas, M., Blair, A., Miller, B.A., Robinson, C.F., Roscoe, R.J., Winter, P.D., Colin, D., Matos, E., et al.: Pooled reanalysis of cancer mortality among five cohorts of workers in wood-related industries. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 21(3), 179–190 (1995)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Boffetta, P., Autier, P., Boniol, M., Boyle, P., Hill, C., Aurengo, A., Masse, R., The, G., Valleron, A.J., Monier, R., Tubiana, M.: An estimate of cancers attributable to occupational exposures in France. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 52(4), 399–406 (2010). doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181d5e355 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassan Serrier
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hélène Sultan-Taieb
    • 1
    • 2
  • Danièle Luce
    • 3
    • 4
  • Sophie Bejean
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Économie et Gestion, Pôle Économie GestionUniversité de BourgogneDijon CedexFrance
  2. 2.Département organisation et ressources humaines, Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la santé, la société et l’environnement (CINBIOSE), École des sciences de la gestionUniversité du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)MontréalCanada
  3. 3.Faculté de MédecineInstitut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail (INSERM U1085)Pointe-à-PitreFrance
  4. 4.Centre de Recherche en Épidémiologie et Santé des Populations (INSERM U1018)Hôpital Paul BrousseVillejuif CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations