Advertisement

The European Journal of Health Economics

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 499–511 | Cite as

Use of formal and informal care services among older people in Ireland and France

  • Brenda GannonEmail author
  • Bérengère Davin
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper focuses on current use of elderly care services in Ireland and France. In light of health care resource allocation problems, it is important to know the level of current use of home care on which future projections may be based. With the availability of SHARE (Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe) data, it is now possible to analyse this process and estimate the relationship between formal and informal care, and our econometric model tests for endogeneity of informal care. Previous research has not included Ireland into the analysis. Given that Ireland has a younger population base, lessons could be learned from countries with older populations, such as France. Results suggest informal care is endogenous and negatively linked with formal care in the pooled (France and Ireland) model. There is a higher unmet need for care in Ireland. These results have important policy implications for Ireland as the demographic makeup will change from 11 per cent to 15 per cent of older people over the next 10 years.

Keywords

Formal and informal care Unmet needs Older people 

JEL Classifications

J14 I11 C31 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Funding gratefully acknowledged from CNSA (Caisse Nationale de Solidarité pour l’Autonomie). This paper uses data from SHARE release 2.3.0, as of 13 November 2009. SHARE data collection in 2004–2007 was primarily funded by the European Commission through its 5th and 6th framework programmes (project numbers QLK6-CT-2001- 00360, RII-CT- 2006-062193, CIT5-CT-2005-028857). Additional funding was by the US National Institute on Aging (Grant numbers U01 AG09740-13S2, P01 AG005842, P01 AG08291, P30 AG12815, Y1-AG-4553-01, OGHA 04-064, R21 AG025169). Irish SHARE sample was collected with the funding support of the Irish Research Council for Humanities and Social Sciences.

References

  1. 1.
    Bonsang, E.: Does informal care from children to their elderly parents substitute for formal care in Europe? J. Health Econ. 28, 143–154 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bolin, K., Lindgren, B., Lundborg, P.: Informal and formal care among single-living elderly in Europe. Health Econ. 17, 393–409 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Van Houtven, C.H., Norton, E.C.: Informal care and health care use of older adults. J. Health Econ. 23, 1159–1180 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pla, A.: Bilan démographique 2007. Des naissances toujours très nombreuses. INSEE Première. 1170 (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Robert-Bobée, I.: Projections de population pour la France métropolitaine à l’horizon 2050. La population continue de croître et le vieillissement se poursuit. INSEE Première. 1089 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Robert-Bobée, I.: Projections de population 2005–2050. Vieillissement de la population en France métropolitaine. Economie et Statistique 408–409, 95–112 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cambois, E., Clavel, A., Romieu, I., Robine, J.: Trends in disability-free life expectancy at age 65 in France: consistent and diverging patterns according to the underlying disability measure. Eur. J. Ageing 5, 287–298 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development: Projecting OECD health and long-term care expenditures: what are the main drivers? OECD Economic Department, Paris (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Joël, M.E.: Les conditions de vie des personnes âgées vivant à domicile d’après l’enquête HID. Revue Française des Affaires Sociales 1–2, 103–122 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Portrait, F., Lindeboom, M., Deeg, D.: The use of long-term care services by the Dutch elderly. Health Econ. 9, 513–531 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Breuil-Genier, P.: Caring for the dependent elderly: more informal than formal. INSEE Studies 39, 1–22 (1999)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Norton, E.C.: Long-term care. In: Culyer, A.J., Newhouse, J.P. (eds.) Handbook of Health Economics. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation, Development: Long-term care for older people. OECD Publishing, Paris (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gaymu, J., Ekamper, P., Beets, G.: Future trends in health and marital status: effects on the structure of living arrangements of older Europeans in 2030. Eur. J. Ageing 5, 5–17 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pickard, L., Wittenberg, R., Comas-Herrera, A., Davies, B., Darton, R.: Relying on informal care in the new century? Informal care for elderly people in England to 2031. Ageing Soc. 20, 745–772 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Spillman, B.C., Pezzin, L.E.: Potential and active family caregivers: changing networks and the “sandwich generation”. Millbank Q 78, 347–374 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mercer Ltd.: Study to Examine the Future Financing of Long-term Care in Ireland. Department of Social and Family Affairs, Dublin (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Espagnol, P., Lo, S.H., Debout, C.: L’allocation personnalisée d’autonomie et la prestation de compensation du handicap au 30 juin 2008. DREES Etudes et Résultats. 666 (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Da Roit, B., Le Bihan, B., Österle, A.: Long-term care policies in Italy, Austria and France: variations in cash-for-care schemes. Soc. Pol. Adm. 41, 653–671 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vasselle, A.: Rapport d’information fait au nom de la mission commune d’information sur la prise en charge de la dépendance et la création du cinquième risque. Sénat, Paris (2008)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grossman, M.: On the concept of health capital and demand for health. J. Political Econ. 80, 223–255 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Staiger, D., Stock, J.: Instrumental variables regression with weak instruments. Econometrica 65, 557–586 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kemper, P., Weaver, F., Short, P.F., Shea, D., Kang, H.: Meeting the need for personal care among the elderly: does Medicaid home care spending matter? Health Serv. Res. 43, 344–362 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Greene, W.: Econometric Analysis, 5th edn. Prentice Hall, New Jersey (2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Davin, B., Paraponaris, A., Verger, P.: Socioeconomic determinants of the need for personal assistance reported by community-dwelling elderly. Empirical evidence from a French national health survey. J. Socio-Econ. 38, 138–146 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Börsch-Supan, A., Jürges, H. (eds.): The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe–Methodology. MEA, Mannheim (2005)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hank, K., Schaan, B.: Cross-national variations in the correlation between frequency of prayer and health among older Europeans. Res. Aging 30, 36–54 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Litwin, H., Sapir, E.: Perceived income adequacy among older adults in 12 countries: findings from the survey of health, ageing, and retirement in Europe. The Gerontologist. 49, 397–406 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Litwin, H., Sapir, E.: Forgone health care due to cost among older adults in European countries and in Israel. Eur. J. Ageing 6, 167–176 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim, S., Egerter, S., Cubbin, C., Takahashi, E.R., Braveman, P.: Potential implications of missing income data in population-based surveys: an example from a postpartum survey in California. Public Health Rep. 122, 753–763 (2007)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Barnes, L., Mendes de Leon, C., Bienias, J., Evans, D.: A longitudinal study of Black–White differences in social resources. J. Gerontol. Ser. B: Psychol Sci. Soc. Sci. 59, S146–S153 (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eng, K., Feeny, D.: Comparing the health of low income and less welleducated groups in the United States and Canada. Popul. Health Metr. (2007) doi: 10.1186/1478-7954-1185-1110
  33. 33.
    McGarry, K., Schoeni, R.: Transfer behaviour in the health and retirement study: measurement and the redistribution of resources within the family. J. Hum. Resour. 30, S184–S226 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Subramanian, S.V., Lochner, K., Kawachi, I.: Neighborhood differences in social capital in the US: compositional artefact or a contextual construct? Health Place 9, 33–44 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gannon, B.: The influence of economic incentives on reported disability status. Health Econ. 18, 743–759 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Greve, J.: Obesity and labour market outcomes in Denmark. Econ. Hum. Biol. 6, 350–362 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Park, C., Kang, C.: Does education induce healthy lifestyle? J. Health Econ. 27, 1516–1531 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Albertini, M., Kohli, M., Vogel, C.: Intergenerational transfers of time and money in European families: common patterns—different regimes? J. Eur. Soc. Pol. 17, 319–334 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Motel-Klingebiel, A., Tesch-Roemer, C., Von Kondratowitz, H.J.: Welfare states do not crowd out the family: evidence for mixed responsibility from comparative analyses. Ageing Soc. 25, 863–882 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hurd, M., McGarry, M.: Medical insurance and the use of health care services by the elderly. J. Health Econ. 16, 129–154 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Weaver, F., Stearns, S.C., Norton, E.C., Spector, W.: Proximity to death and participation in the long-term care market. Health Econ. 18, 867–883 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Economics, Irish Centre for Social GerontologyNational University of IrelandGalwayIreland
  2. 2.INSERM, U912 (SE4S)MarseilleFrance
  3. 3.Université Aix Marseille, IRD, UMR-S912MarseilleFrance
  4. 4.Observatoire Régional de la Santé, Provence Alpes Côte d’AzurMarseilleFrance

Personalised recommendations