Vertically shaken column of spheres. Onset of fluidization
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The onset of surface fluidization of granular material in a vertically vibrated container, z = A cos\(\)ωt\(\), is studied experimentally. Recently, for a column of spheres it has been theoretically found (see T. Pöschel, T. Schwager, C. Salue na, Phys. Rev. E 62, 1361 (2000)) that the particles lose contact if a certain condition for the acceleration amplitude \(\)≡Aω2/g = f (ω) holds. This result is in disagreement with other findings where the criterion \(\) = \(\) = const was found to be the criterion of fluidization. We show that for a column of spheres a critical acceleration is not a proper criterion for fluidization and compare the results with theory.
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